ATP (adenosine triphosphate) has been called the energy currency of the cell. Briefly outline the cycle by which energy is stored in and released from ATP. Discuss how ATP is critically important to cellular chemical processes.
Enzymes are protein materials that control chemical processes. Describe the specific mechanisms of enzyme function. Pick a specific enzyme and describe its function and the importance of that function to life. Discuss how the loss of that enzyme would disrupt living processes. Make sure your explanation of enzymes is informed by the textbook.)
In this week discussion our main focus is the importance of the ATP and Enzymes. The ATP (adenosine triphosphate) has been called the energy currency of the cell. The ATP consists of an organic molecule called adenosine plus a tail of three phosphate groups. The triphosphate tail is the business end of the ATP which provide energy for the cellular work. Cellular work spends ATP, which is recycled when ADP and phosphate are combined using energy released by cellular respiration. The energy from processes that yield energy, such as the breakdown of the organic fuels, is transferred processes that consume energy, such as muscle contraction and other cellular work. The ATP run at a really fast pace up to 10 million ATP’s are consumed and recycled each second in a working muscle cell. Enzymes are proteins that speed up the chemical reactions without being consumed by those reactions. All living cells contain thousands of enzymes however, each one develop a separate chemical reaction. Proteins embedded in the plasma membrane perform a wide variety of functions, including regulating transport, anchoring to other cells or substances, promoting enzymatic reactions, and recognizing other cells.
Eric J. Simon, Jean L. Dickey, Jane B. Reece, and Kelly A. Hogan. (2016). Campbell Essential Biology, 5th Ed. Benjamin-Cummings
Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is considered to be complex organic chemicals which are involved in providing energy for many processes that take place in living cells. When a cell requires energy, the ATP is then broken down through hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of ATP is important in movement by the contraction of muscles, structural maintenance.
ATP is constantly formed and broken down as it participates in biological reactions and it is central to the health and growth of all life. (Danaher, 2017). ATP is important to the cellular chemical process because it captures chemical energy obtained from breakdown of food molecules and then releases it to fuel other cell processes. Since ATP is the primary carrier of energy cells, ATP is converted from storage molecules when energy is needed by the cell. (Britannica, 2018).
Enzymes are important because they are protein in nature which speeds up the process of a chemical reaction without taking place in the reaction. (Marmorstein, 2016). The functions of enzymes may include regulating cell activities, breaking down of large molecules into small molecules which are easily absorbable by the body, generating energy in living organisms through the speeding up of hydrolysis of ATP and some other functions, including hormone regulation responses and reactions. An example of a particular enzyme is when the salivary enzyme amylase binds to a starch, it catalyzes hydrolysis, which results in maltose, or malt sugar. (Castro, 2014).
Britannica, T. E. (2018, September 20). Adenosine triphosphate. Retrieved November 3, 2018, from https://www.britannica.com/science/adenosine-triphosphate
Castro, J. (2014, April 26). How Do Enzymes Work? Retrieved November 3, 2018, from https://www.livescience.com/45145-how-do-enzymes-work.html
Donaher, A. (2017, August 29). What Is ATP and What Does It Do? Retrieved November 3, 2018, from https://www.luminultra.com/what-is-atp-and-what-does-it-do/