astrocytic brain tumor
A 20-year-old has been diagnosed with an astrocytic brain tumor located in the brain stem. Which of the following statements by the oncologist treating the client is most accurate?
A. “Our treatment plan will depend on whether your tumor is malignant or benign.”
B. “This is likely a result of a combination of heredity and lifestyle.”
C. “The major risk that you face is metastases to your lungs, liver, or bones.”
D. “Your prognosis will depend on whether we can surgically resect your tumor.”
A patient diagnosed with low-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has recently developed thrombocytopenia. One of the medications utilized to treat this would be Answers:
A. cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic.
B. vincristine, a Vinca alkaloid.
C. dexamethasone, a corticosteroid.
D. doxorubicin, a cytotoxic antibiotic.
Two nursing students are attempting to differentiate between the presentations of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Which of the students’ following statements best captures an aspect of the two health problems? Answers:
A. “ITP can be either inherited or acquired, and if it’s acquired, it involves an enzyme deficiency.”
B. “Both of them involve low platelet counts, but in TTP, there can be more, not less, hemostasis.
C. “TTP can be treated with plasmapheresis, but ITP is best addressed with transfusion of fresh frozen plasma.”
D. “Both diseases can result from inadequate production of thrombopoietin by megakaryocytes.”
A physician is explaining to a 40-year-old male patient the importance of completing his course of antibiotics for the treatment of tuberculosis. The physician explains the damage that could occur to lung tissue by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Which of the following phenomena would underlie the physician’s explanation?
A. Tissue destruction results from neutrophil deactivation.
B. Neutrophils are ineffective against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens.
C. Macrophages form a capsule around the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, resulting in immune granulomas.
D. Nonspecific macrophage activity leads to pulmonary tissue destruction and resulting hemoptysis.
A teenager, exposed to West Nile virus a few weeks ago while camping with friends, is admitted with headache, fever, and nuchal rigidity. The teenager is also displaying some lethargy and disorientation. The nurse knows which of the following medical diagnoses listed below may be associated with these clinical manifestations?
B. Lyme disease
C. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
D. Spinal infection
A patient has been diagnosed with anemia. The physician suspects an immune hemolytic anemia and orders a Coombs test. The patient asks the nurse what this test will tell the doctor. The nurse replies,
A. “They are looking for the presence of antibody or complement on the surface of the RBC.”
B. “They will look at your RBCs under a microscope to see if they have an irregular shape (poikilocytosis).”
C. “They will wash your RBCs and then mix the cells with a reagent to see if they clump together.”
D. “They will be looking to see if you have enough ferritin in your blood.”
A 29-year-old construction worker got a sliver under his fingernail 4 days ago. The affected finger is now reddened, painful, swollen, and warm to touch. Which of the following hematological processes is most likely occurring in the bone marrow in response to the infection?
A. Phagocytosis by myelocytes
B. Increased segmented neutrophil production
C. High circulatory levels of myeloblasts
D. Proliferation of immature neutrophils
A surgeon is explaining to the parents of a 6-year-old boy the rationale for the suggestion of removing the boy’s spleen. Which of the following teaching points would be most accurate?
A.“We think that his spleen is inhibiting the production of platelets by his bone marrow.”
B.“We believe that your son’s spleen is causing the destruction of many of his blood platelets, putting him at a bleeding risk.”
C.“Your son’s spleen is holding on to too many of his platelets, so they’re not available for clotting.”
D.“Your son’s spleen is inappropriately filtering out the platelets from his blood and keeping them from normal circulation.”
Question 39 A nurse practitioner is providing care for a client with low levels of the plasma protein gamma globulin. The nurse would recognize that the client is at risk of developing which of the following health problems?
B. Blood clots
A 32-year-old woman presents at her neighborhood health clinic complaining of weakness and a feeling of abdominal fullness. She reports that 6 months earlier she noticed that she had difficulty in maintaining the high level of energy she has relied on during her aerobic workouts over the past few years. Because she felt that she was in overall good health, but knew that women often need additional iron, she added a multiple vitamin with iron and some meat and leafy greens to her diet. She followed her plan carefully but had no increase in energy. Upon examination, her spleen is noted to be enlarged. Which of the following is most likely to be the cause?
B. Accelerated CML
C. Infectious mononucleosis
D. Stage A Hodgkin disease