Identify the author of each passage.
_____ 1. “It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.”
a. Robert E. Lee b. Walt Whitman c. Abraham Lincoln d. Mary Chesnut
_____ 2. “As an American citizen, I take great pride in my country, her prosperity and institutions, and would defend any state if her rights were invaded.”
a. Robert E. Lee b. Abraham Lincoln c. Warren Goss d. Walt Whitman
_____ 3. “Liberty! the inestimable birthright of every man, had, for me, converted every object into an asserter of this great right.”
a. Abraham Lincoln b. Frederick Douglass c. Sojourner Truth d. Walt Whitman
_____ 4. “Reaction after the dread of slaughter we thought those dreadful cannons were making such noise in doing. Not even a battery the worse for wear.”
a. Robert E. Lee b. Walt Whitman c. Randolph McKim d. Mary Chesnut
_____ 5. “I was twenty years of age, and when anything unusual was to be done, like fighting or courting, I shaved.”
a. Randolph McKim b. Frederick Douglass c. Warren Goss d. Robert E. Lee
Part B: Multiple-Choice Select the best answer for each question.
_____ 6. Which of the following does NOT describe why slaves sang spirituals?
a. to appease the overseers who did not want silence b. to flatter the owner and his family in the big house c. to celebrate the blessings in their lives d. to emotionally deal with being a slave
_____ 7. Spirituals are allegorical for all but which of the following reasons?
a. The songs can be interpreted on at least two levels. b. They often literally depict biblical stories and figuratively depict slave stories. c. They personify their surroundings. d. The images represent more than their literal surroundings.
_____ 8. In “Go Down, Moses,” “Egypt land” refers to Egypt on one level. What else does the phrase refer to?
a. the South b. the North c. Africa d. England
_____ 9. Which of the following does NOT describe the meaning of “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot”?
a. Home equals the slave quarters. b. Home equals heaven. c. Home equals freedom. d. Home equals the North.
_____ 10. In “Letter to His Son,” Robert E. Lee does which of the following?
a. urges his son to support the North b. agrees that the South has grievances c. criticizes the state of Virginia d. rejoices at the election of Abraham Lincoln
_____ 11. In “Letter to His Son,” Robert E. Lee’s remark that “we are between a state of Anarchy and civil war” indicates that
a. no battles had yet been fought. b. Lee still hoped for a peaceful secession. c. Lee still hoped the South would submit peacefully. d. the North hoped for a compromise settlement.
_____ 12. “Letter to His Son” indicates that Lincoln and Lee held similar views about
a. southern interests. b. northern aggression. c. hoping to avoid civil war. d. federal authority.
_____ 13. The structural framework of the “Gettysburg Address” is a
a. single topic, treated succinctly. b. single idea stated in simple words. c. progression from the past to the present, and into the future. d. shift from a simple fact to a broad generalization.
_____ 14. The occasion for “The Gettysburg Address” was
a. the secession of the states. b. a ceremony at the Gettysburg battlefield. c. the approval of a law banning slavery. d. the dedication of a monument at Fort Sumter.
_____ 15. Why did President Lincoln believe that the Gettysburg ground could not be consecrated or hallowed in a “larger sense”?
a. The nation was still torn apart. b. The battle at Gettysburg had occurred too recently. c. Both sides had to dedicate the ground together. d. The ground had already been consecrated by the soldiers.
_____ 16. In “The Gettysburg Address,” what does Lincoln mean when he says, “the world will little note nor long remember what we say here?”
a. Words are seldom memorable. b. Wartime speeches are unimportant. c. Words are often overshadowed by deeds. d. He recognizes his speaking deficiencies.
_____ 17. “The Gettysburg Address” is notable for all of the following EXCEPT its
a. rhythm. b. references to the ideals of liberty. c. allegorical reference to westward expansion. d. eloquent diction.
_____ 18. In “The Gettysburg Address,” Lincoln
a. surrenders the Union forces. b. urges people to support the Union and the war effort. c. talks about the concept of states’ rights. d. presents a long moral argument against the institution of slavery.
_____ 19. My Bondage and My Freedom challenged all of the following ideas EXCEPT
a. slaves were incapable of reading and writing. b. slaves were equal to whites. c. slaves were satisfied with their situation. d. slaves were comfortable with their position in life.
_____ 20. If your purpose for reading is to understand slavery’s effect on people, what conclusion can you draw about Mrs. Auld’s opposition to Douglass’s learning to read in My Bondage and My Freedom?
a. Mrs. Auld fought to resist slavery. b. Mrs. Auld had a strong conscience. c. Mrs. Auld was forced to conform to her role as a slaveholder. d. Mrs. Auld should have fed and clothed more slaves.
_____ 21. In My Bondage and My Freedom, why does Douglass feel affection for Mrs. Auld?
a. He has romantic feelings for her. b. She does not act like a slave owner. c. She reminds him of his mother. d. She organizes slave protests and revolts.
_____ 22. In My Bondage and My Freedom, what does Douglass suggest will probably happen to the white children in the future, when they are older and dealing with “the cares of life”?
a. They will one day help him escape from his slaveowners. b. They will likely accept slavery when they become adults. c. They will grow up to be abolitionists and resist slavery. d. They will be overwhelmed by business concerns.
_____ 23. As revealed in My Bondage and My Freedom, what was a major turning point in the life of Frederick Douglass?
a. developing a liking for Mrs. Auld b. resenting Mrs. Auld c. learning to read and write d. finding contentment with his life
_____ 24. What is Douglass’s final judgment of Mrs. Auld in My Bondage and My Freedom?
a. She should not have taught him to read. b. She should have helped him to escape. c. She was not well-suited to slavery. d. She could not run a household well.
_____ 25. Determine the meaning of the word “consternation” in this sentence: “I have had her rush at me, with the utmost fury, and snatch from my hand such newspaper or book, with something of the wrath and consternation which a traitor might be supposed to feel on being discovered in a plot by some dangerous spy.”
a. elation b. pride c. confusion d. amusement
_____ 26. At first, Douglass says, his mistress acted in a “benevolent manner.” He means that she acted __________ toward him.
a. indifferently b. selfishly c. kindly d. brutally
_____ 27. The word most nearly OPPOSITE in meaning to “consternation” is
a. thoughtfulness. b. confidence. c. fear. d. despair.
_____ 28. Determine the meaning of the word “deficient” in the following sentence: “At first, Mrs. Auld was deficient, or, in the skills and attitude necessary to be a brutal slave owner.”
a. lacking b. highly skilled c. practiced d. experienced
_____ 29. In “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot,” what emotion is communicated as you listen to the refrain?
a. anger b. boredom c. longing d. fear
_____ 30. In “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot,” to whom does the singer refer in the following: “If you get there before I do. . . Tell all my friends I’m coming too”?
a. relatives who have abandoned her b. slaves who have already escaped c. blacks who were born in the North d. whites on the Underground Railroad
_____ 31. Which line is a refrain in “Go Down, Moses”?
a. let my people go b. when Israel was in Egypt land c. oppressed so hard they could not stand d. if not I’ll smite your first-born dead
_____ 32. Which element of “Go Down, Moses” is characteristic of many spirituals?
a. references to biblical places b. references to war c. warnings of punishment d. demands upon leaders
_____ 33. In “Go Down, Moses,” what do Pharaoh and the people of Israel stand for?
a. Egypt and Moses b. the U.S. and Egypt c. the president and U.S. citizens d. slaveowners and slaves
_____ 34. What happens during the first incident with the streetcar in “An Account of An Experience with Discrimination”?
a. The conductor treats Truth civilly because she is with a white woman. b. The conductor refuses to stop the streetcar. c. The conductor closes the door in Truth’s face. d. The conductor overcharges Truth because she is black.
_____ 35. What happens to the conductor who was involved in the first incident that Truth describes?
a. He is promoted. b. He is arrested. c. He is dismissed. d. He is assigned to a new route.
_____ 36. What does Truth’s companion, Josephine Griffing, do as a result of how the conductor treated Truth during the first incident?
a. She reports the conductor to the president of the streetcar company. b. She gets off herself and walks along with Truth the rest of the way. c. She reminds Truth that black people are often treated unfairly. d. She apologizes for getting on first instead of letting Truth go first.
_____ 37. What does Mrs. Haviland mean when she says Truth “does not belong to me, but she belongs to humanity”?
a. Truth was once was a slave, but she is now free. b. Truth is a human being and should be treated like everyone else. c. Truth is not a slave, but she is an African American woman. d. Truth is working for the hospital and should be treated respectfully.
_____ 38. In which sentence is the meaning of the word “ascend” suggested?
a. The passengers stepped up on the platform. b. The streetcar picked up speed. c. The streetcar slowly came to a stop. d. Truth got off the streetcar.
_____ 39. In which sentence is the meaning of the word “assault” suggested?
a. The conductor grabbed Truth and hurt her as he pushed her from the streetcar. b. Mrs. Haviland tried to help Truth get on the streetcar. c. The streetcar came to an abrupt halt when Truth stepped in front of it. d. People watched curiously as the argument continued between the two women and the conductor.
_____ 40. When the president advised the conductor’s “arrest for assault,” he meant the conductor should be arrested because he
a. discriminated against Truth. b. attacked Truth. c. spoke harshly to Truth. d. refused to let Truth on the streetcar
1. “from My Bondage and Freedom” – Frederick Douglas
I lived in the family of Master Hugh, at Baltimore, seven years, during which time–as the almanac makers say of the weather–my condition was variable. The most interesting feature of my history here, was my learning to read and write, under somewhat marked disadvantages. In attaining this knowledge, I was compelled to resort to indirections by no means congenial to my nature, and which were really humiliating to me. My mistress– who, as the reader has already seen, had begun to teach me was suddenly checked in her benevolent design, by the strong advice of her husband. In faithful compliance with this advice, the good lady had not only ceased to instruct me, herself, but had set her face as a flint against my learning to read by any means. It is due, however, to my mistress to say, that she did not adopt this course in all its stringency at the first. She either thought it unnecessary, or she lacked the depravity indispensable to shutting me up in mental darkness. It was, at least, necessary for her to have some training, and some hardening, in the exercise of the slaveholder’s prerogative, to make her equal to forgetting my human nature and character, and to treating me as a thing destitute of a moral or an intellectual nature. Mrs. Auld–my mistress–was, as I have said, a most kind and tender-hearted woman; and, in the humanity of her heart, and the simplicity of her mind, she set out, when I first went to live with her, to treat me as she supposed one human being ought to treat another.
It is easy to see, that, in entering upon the duties of a slaveholder, some little experience is needed. Nature has done almost nothing to prepare men and women to be either slaves or slaveholders. Nothing but rigid training, long persisted in, can perfect the character of the one or the other. One cannot easily forget to love freedom; and it is as hard to cease to respect that natural love in our fellow creatures. On entering upon the career of a slaveholding mistress, Mrs. Auld was singularly deficient; nature, which fits nobody for such an office, had done less for her than any lady I had known. It was no easy matter to induce her to think and to feel that the curly-headed boy, who stood by her side, and even leaned on her lap; who was loved by little Tommy, and who loved little Tommy in turn; sustained to her only the relation of a chattel. I was _more_ than that, and she felt me to be more than that. I could talk and sing; I could laugh and weep; I could reason and remember; I could love and hate. I was human, and she, dear lady, knew and felt me to be so. How could she, then, treat me as a brute, without a mighty struggle with all the noble powers of her own soul. That struggle came, and the will and power of the husband was victorious. Her noble soul was overthrown; but, he that overthrew it did not, himself, escape the consequences. He, not less than the other parties, was injured in his domestic peace by the fall.
When I went into their family, it was the abode of happiness and contentment. The mistress of the house was a model of affection and tenderness. Her fervent piety and watchful uprightness made it impossible to see her without thinking and feeling–“_that woman is a Christian_.” There was no sorrow nor suffering for which she had not a tear, and there was no innocent joy for which she did not a smile. She had bread for the hungry, clothes for the naked, and comfort for every mourner that came within her reach. Slavery soon proved its ability to divest her of these excellent qualities, and her home of its early happiness. Conscience cannot stand much violence. Once thoroughly broken down, _who_ is he that can repair the damage? It may be broken toward the slave, on Sunday, and toward the master on Monday. It cannot endure such shocks. It must stand entire, or it does not stand at all.
If my condition waxed bad, that of the family waxed not better. The first step, in the wrong direction, was the violence done to nature and to conscience, in arresting the benevolence that would have enlightened my young mind. In ceasing to instruct me, she must begin to justify herself _to_ herself; and, once consenting to take sides in such a debate, she was riveted to her position. One needs very little knowledge of moral philosophy, to see _where_ my mistress now landed. She finally became even more violent in her opposition to my learning to read, than was her husband himself. She was not satisfied with simply doing as _well_ as her husband had commanded her, but seemed resolved to better his instruction. Nothing appeared to make my poor mistress–after her turning toward the downward path–more angry, than seeing me, seated in some nook or corner, quietly reading a book or a newspaper. I have had her rush at me, with the utmost fury, and snatch from my hand such newspaper or book, with something of the wrath and consternation which a traitor might be supposed to feel on being discovered in a plot by some dangerous spy.
Mrs. Auld was an apt woman, and the advice of her husband, and her own experience, soon demonstrated, to her entire satisfaction, that education and slavery are incompatible with each other. When this conviction was thoroughly established, I was most narrowly watched in all my movements. If I remained in a separate room from the family for any considerable length of time, I was sure to be suspected of having a book, and was at once called upon to give an account of myself. All this, however, was entirely _too late_. The first, and never to be retraced, step had been taken. In teaching me the alphabet, in the days of her simplicity and kindness, my mistress had given me the _”inch,”_ and now, no ordinary precaution could prevent me from taking the _”ell.”_
Seized with a determination to learn to read, at any cost, I hit upon many expedients to accomplish the desired end. The plea which I mainly adopted, and the one by which I was most successful, was that of using my young white playmates, with whom I met in the streets as teachers. I used to carry, almost constantly, a copy of Webster’s spelling book in my pocket; and, when sent of errands, or when play time was allowed me, I would step, with my young friends, aside, and take a lesson in spelling. I generally paid my _tuition fee_ to the boys, with bread, which I also carried in my pocket. For a single biscuit, any of my hungry little comrades would give me a lesson more valuable to me than bread. Not every one, however, demanded this consideration, for there were those who took pleasure in teaching me, whenever I had a chance to be taught by them. I am strongly tempted to give the names of two or three of those little boys, as a slight testimonial of the gratitude and affection I bear them, but prudence forbids; not that it would injure me, but it might, possibly, embarrass them; for it is almost an unpardonable offense to do any thing, directly or indirectly, to promote a slave’s freedom, in a slave state. It is enough to say, of my warm-hearted little play fellows, that they lived on Philpot street, very near Durgin & Bailey’s shipyard.
Although slavery was a delicate subject, and very cautiously talked about among grown up people in Maryland, I frequently talked about it–and that very freely–with the white boys. I would, sometimes, say to them, while seated on a curb stone or a cellar door, “I wish I could be free, as you will be when you get to be men.” “You will be free, you know, as soon as you are twenty-one, and can go where you like, but I am a slave for life. Have I not as good a right to be free as you have?” Words like these, I observed, always troubled them; and I had no small satisfaction in wringing from the boys, occasionally, that fresh and bitter condemnation of slavery, that springs from nature, unseared and unperverted. Of all consciences let me have those to deal with which have not been bewildered by the cares of life. I do not remember ever to have met with a _boy_, while I was in slavery, who defended the slave system; but I have often had boys to console me, with the hope that something would yet occur, by which I might be made free. Over and over again, they have told me, that “they believed I had as good a right to be free as _they_ had;” and that “they did not believe God ever made any one to be a slave.” The reader will easily see, that such little conversations with my play fellows, had no tendency to weaken my love of liberty, nor to render me contented with my condition as a slave.