behavioral and psychological factors
are the primary behavioral and psychological factors associated with why someone would disengage from terrorism? Also, summarize the effectiveness of de-radicalization programs covered by the required readings by either Zahid or Pettinger.
Reply to these post 150 words min each
1. There are numerous factors for disengaging from terrorism. Becoming radicalized is a long process and you cannot just reverse the steps and become de-radicalized. Based on research by Dr. Schimid, the International Peace Institute (IPI) reported that terrorist had individual pull factors that steered them away from terrorism (Schimid, 2013, p.44). Personal trauma or the loss of a comrade or family member weighed heavily on the list of factors. Regardless of what you are fighting for, to experience loss during battle can be very traumatic. It can separate you from reality, dissocialize you, or point you in a new direction.
Another key factor is simply coming to realization that you do not want to continue down a certain path. Some want to have a family or the overall leadership is not what it once was, these things lead to disengaging an individual from terrorism (Schimid, 2013). This feeling kind of snaps someone back to reality, not instantly, but through therapy and time. De-radicalization programs can go one of two ways.
The program could focus on the individual de-radicalization of an individual, centering on psychological and religious counseling to produce a change in mind. Alternatively, collective de-radicalization focuses on political negotiations to obtain a change in behavior (Schimid, 2013, p.41). Some prisons have reported success in using re-radicalization programs, from Western countries to the Middle East. However, the International Peace Institute (IPI) created reports originating from eight Muslim-majority countries. Based off the reports, some ‘good practices’ and ‘preliminary lessons’ were learned, but de-radicalization programs still remain in its infancy stage (Schimid, 2013, p.41).
The issue with finding out if these programs are successful ties directly to the prisoners themselves. In order to get out of prison, many terrorist learn to “talk the talk” (Korade, 2008). If they must conform to what the prison requires them to, they will do exactly that, however, it does not de-radicalize the prisoner. Based off reports from the Center of Terrorism Law in Texas, 30-40 percent of inmates go right back criminal behavior (Schimid, 2013, p.43). I think de-radicalization is extremely important to rehabilitating someone back to society, however, the world has struggle with creating a blueprint to do so. This is primarily because terrorism, as it is heinous in nature, it is the minority compared to crime in the United States. The process of de-radicalization will remain a trial and error type of system until higher and more consistent success rates emerge.