The Case Study Analysis of a Child with Learning Disability
The case study seeks to explore a child with a learning disorder that dropped out
of his primary school, exploring the explicit factors that lead to that discussion and what
he exactly went through. The case study will contain detailed information about the child
starting from the point of birth, social, medically, and all other historical facts that are
important in dissecting the learning disability in him. Historically, several children across
the world struggle in school in certain circumstances of learning as monitored from time
to time. Nevertheless, it has been noted that when a child struggles during learning in
school with some skills for a period, it could be related to a learning disorder (O’Connell
et al., 2019). The learning disorder has various definition depending on the prevailing
parameters at that time. However, a learning disorder in a child can be defined as a
scenario when a child exhibits some level of difficulty in one or more learning spheres.
The difficulty in the learning can be experienced even though the intelligence or
the motivation might not be affected. The learning disability would be exhibited through
factors such as difficulty in understanding a concept that is learnt or even the inability to
notice specific shapes or item that is being taught. The children with learning disorder
occasionally may feel stigmatized due to their inability to master the academic concept
(Fletcher et al., 2019). The stigmatization can be related to the difficulty in handling and
managing the learning disorder; stigmatization often has been considered as a hurdle in
managing a learning disorder. Conversely, a learning disorder can exhibit emotional
disturbance resulted from the aggression as a result of frustrations that one might go
through amid others. In the research, there is the inclusion of management mechanism
involve in the learning disorder. The special education is well illustrated as a mode of
helping children with the learning disorder.
The learning disability is estimated to have affected more than a million children
across the world. In the United States, the population of children affected by learning
disability has generally involved about 10 % of the children population. The learning
disability is some occasion can have referred to as intellectual disability (Giofrè et al.,
2017). However, currently, there is the existence of science and psychologically
integrated spectrum approach in handling learning disability in children. This paper seeks
to address the learning disability with an amplified and well-explained case study. The
case study will illustrate a practical example of a child with a learning disability through
the case to case approach—the causes of learning disability in children and even the
medical history behind the learning disorder (Gadow, 2018). The majority of the human
population that is not exposed to such human condition occasionally can be linked to
discrimination and prejudice towards the children with a learning disorder. The research
was conducted for months, of course, through the consent of the guardian of the child.
The parents were optimistic about the condition of their child, and they were willing to go
millstone to avert the situation and the state of their child. The case study further explores
the experience of a child with a learning disability through his learning life.
Background of the Client
Source of Information
The participant was a 14-year-old male student who dropped out of his primary
level of study and was later designated as a person with the learning disability. The
participant was at the beginning of his adolescent stage. The case study was conducted
through dome a one on one interview, direct observation and through the taking of
pictures with the consent of the child parents. The main was to explore the experience,
the medical aspect of handling the learning disorder and the intervention plan that was
applied. The attitude that a child exhibit towards himself was found to be linked with the
school dropout even later he was optimistic about re-admission back in school to
complete the study. The effort of the people in the ecological niche where the child exist
is pivotal in the management of learning disorder. This person might include the teachers,
parents and the peers of the child.
In the contemporary world today, financial stability and other factors like
education achievement are strongly linked with going to school. Therefore, going to
school is significant in the life of any child or a young child. However, it is essential to
note that some factors might hinder one from achieving his/her education dream (Shobha
et al., 2019). The learning disability is one of the factors that might hinder an individual
from attaining their education dream. Nevertheless, there is an upsurge need to mitigate
this menace that affects a chunk of the population of children today to achieve
Name of the Child: John
Date of Birth: 2007 March
Age: 13 years
Country of Origin: Filipino
John was born in the year 2007 and raised by both her mother and father. He was
born in a family of three children and was raised as the only boy of the family. He was
the last born of the other two siblings. He was a darling of both his parent being that he
was the last born of the family. The mother works a nurse in a local hospital, while the
dad is a registered Engineer working with a particular company in the country. The
family has no history of a common ailment in their generation even though the mother
had diabetes and was under medication throughout her life. He was raised in the leaf sub-
hubs of the Filipino capital. However, from the observation, one could not tell that he was
from a well-off family. His other two sisters were ahead of him by 6 and 4 years
respectively hence he would always consult them in all his academic matters. However,
when he was in Kindergarten, he complained to the parents about the attitude that the
sisters were depicting towards him, and this could be linked to his poor performance in
school. Therefore, John grew to have a rosy relationship with his two other siblings.
Notably, at Kindergarten it was reported that he had difficulty in reading as compared to
his other peers
John is a thirteen-year-old well-nourished male with no known long-term medical
complications and complains. However, in the past one year, he had been experiencing
consistence fatigue and pain the joint. He was taken to the hospital and diagnosed with
Juvenile arthritis even though there is no family liked in terms of family medical history.
He was given medication after diagnosis to provide the remedy to the condition.
However, after a short duration of taking the medication, he stooped after experiencing a
short relive from the condition. In the past month, he has experienced short
lightheadedness and accompanied by the little headache. However, John has no report of
loss of consciousness about the headache, and again he went to the hospital and was
given a medication that relieved him from the symptoms. He is reported to have been
feeling better currently, and he is feeding well with no medical complains.
Evaluation and Analysis of the Case
Learning disability as defined medically is a neurobiological disorder that may
interfere a person’s ability to comprehend things in terms of understanding resulting from
the partial or full impairment of the process involving in thinking, remembering and the
general learning. The experience of processing the information can be related to the
interference in the central nervous system, which goes up to the main processor that is the
brain (Cornoldi et al., 2017). The lobe in the brain is pivotal since it plays a primary role
in memory retention and reception, which are vital in the learning process. However,
there is three known learning disorder that has been linked to hindering academic
achievement of a person. The three-learning disorder may include, the reading disorder,
the writing expression disorder and occasionally the disorder of not comprehending
mathematics often called mathematics disorder. The three-learning disorder is the most
known learning disability in the sphere and confines of special education.
However, learning disabilities are not easy to recognize, and many populations of
children might be facing this pandemic undiagnosed. The difficulty in recognizing the
learning disabilities can be related and blamed on its nature of the unobservable in the
construct level. The process of identifying a person with low academic capabilities and
lack of mastery in academic skills is not a walk in the park, and it is strenuous (Franklin,
2018). Therefore, the managing of learning disabilities requires special attention leading
to the integration of special education—the special education unique education attention
and system given to learners with different disability cases. Medically, the learning
disability can be linked to the neurological defects in the human body, which interferes
with the ability of a person to process information resulting in a deficit in the intelligence
capacity of a person. Nevertheless, it is important to note that people with this kind of
disability might have 100 score characteristics on a standardized intelligent test even
though their academic excellence cannot be equivalent to the score (Vincent & Shobha,
2019). However, the learning disability can also be caused by external factors outside the
human body such as cultural diversity, the impairment in terms of vision and hearing, the
mental health imbalance, poverty and even lack of an instructor.
In the case study, during a semi-structured interview with the client, we noticed
that he could not scan anything and comprehend any piece of written material that was
presented to him. The parents reported that he dropped out of his primary final level of
study remaining while remaining with only one year to proceed to high school.
Nevertheless, the drop out was blamed on the stigma that affecting the general wellbeing
of John. However, it was noted that he could John could read some few words after some
Also, the stigmatization among his peers was evident, since, during the first
interview, he adamantly refused to participate, prompting the Intervention from his
parents. The co-operation and co-ordination were difficult during the first stages of the
one-on-one interview. The self- esteem issues were evident and could be seen with the
lack of the courage to participate in the interview (Rouse & Graham, 2016).
Subsequently, he would read and produce a different sound of his own imagination
different from what was presented to him. He could not properly spell any word
correctly, and the fluency of his words was not comprehensive and was lacking the flow.
He struggled with pronunciation and spelling of words.
The reading disability is the most common type of learning disability exhibited in
young children suffering from the learning disorder. The reading disability directly linked
to the central nervous dysfunction, as mentioned earlier, that learning disability are
connected to the dysfunction of the cognitive aspect of the central nervous system. The
central nervous system plays a key role in the phonological processing of the information
(Piasta et al., 2019). The phonological processing applies the sound as a medium that
would process language in processing any material that is written down.
Then people experiencing the difficulty in reading are linked to struggle in
spellings and word recognition. The brain system and mechanism within the brain are
primary in the reading capabilities of a child. However, it is essential to note that the
reading disorder of child and that of the adult are different in the way in which they
occur. Nevertheless, the brain accountable and responsible for the understanding of
language and the pronunciation in any written material. The right side of the brain or any
side of the brain with the reading incapacities is required to compensate for the weak
activation of the other side of the brain (Grigorenko et al., 2019).
Low Self –Esteem
Self-esteem has a myriad definition that has led to a heated debate about the
meaning of self-esteem. However, self –esteem can be defined as self-worth that controls
the behavior and actions of a person that can affect a person’s quality of life. The
consistency of academic incapability and negative comments that a child receives from
the people in his environment contributes majorly in lowering their self-esteem (Gadow,
2018). The low self – esteem can contribute majorly to learning disorder and impact the
quality of life in a person. The low self –esteem contributes to mental retardation that can
often increase the learning disorder effect in a person.
Interventions and Implementation Plan
Several coping mechanisms can be implemented in a child with a learning
disability. In the case study presented, the child has dropped out of school due to learning
disability. There were no interventions taken to avert the situation, and this can be blamed
on the ignorance of the people around him (Graham, 2016). The Intervention, therefore,
is required to include mechanisms that would see him and the people around him accept
the situation and be willing to support him achieve his dreams.
The intervention plans include multiple approaches that include establishing his
academic difficulties and the consideration of the type of problem he is experiencing
since academic difficulties are broad. In his case study, the main diagnostic problem
reading difficulties. The Intervention will include a help-seeking approach mechanism.
The help-seeking approach mechanism entails going to the teachers and the adults around
him for the instrumental aid (Bhogaraju et al., 2017). The instrumental aid encompasses
the method of effective learning. The consideration of effective learning mechanism that
would be suitable for the child is primary since the child will be given approach as
oppose to the rest of learners (Bishop, 2018). Also, there will be an Intervention that
would be dependent on the child. The maladaptive strategy where the child would be
trained on how to prevent others from learning about his inability to read. However, he
can express himself on what he wants, specifically when in need of any help.
The Implementation Plan
The first step would be involving his parents understanding and learning about the
condition of their child. And, this step is key in intervention scale to enable the child to
have the support from the family first that would be able to defend him in case of
victimization from outsiders. The family should even include the extended members and
even his peers. The sisters that had meted him with prejudice and discrimination should
also be involved in the process. This concept would enable the environment around him
to strengthen and support him.
Secondly, the child is to be registered back to school to complete his studies. In
school re-admission, it is advised that a thorough background checking should be done
that involves the teachers. The school management should be involved to give the child a
good reception that would motivate him. The re-admission should be done in an in-depth
consultation with her former teachers which had a little experience of him in class. The
former teachers would provide a more amicable solution on the issues like the level of a
grade that he should join. Finally, there, the child should be made aware of what is
happening and helped in understanding and appreciating his conditions. This procedure
may involve an expert in social psychology to give a child a thorough counsel. In this, he
will learn to cope up and achieve his academic excellence
Conclusion and Recommendation
In summation, long-lasting support and care should be made available for children
suffering from learning disabilities. The children suffering from learning disabilities
experience severe stigmatization in their ecological niche. The stigmatization results in
factors like severe mental retardation, and in the end, they are not achieving any
academic achievement in their lives.
The parents and the teachers play a primary role in providing support and care for
children with learning disabilities (Arunagirinathan et al., 2020). The children with LD
are required to have a strong social connection with their environment. The interaction
should be active and involved to avert the discrimination and prejudice aspect. The peer
relationship is a critical component that the caregivers should look into for children with
the learning disability.
However, the children on their side are supposed to be aware of their learning
disability. The explanation should be made available to appear regularly and can be dealt
with appropriately. The explanation should help them understand and appreciate their
condition. The programs should be initiated by special help group that advocates for the
rights of children with the learning disability. The schools should be aware of and be
ready to accept learners with a learning disability. The school environment should be
friendly and act as their second home to help them resourcefully achieve their academic
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