Cameron, L., Erkal, N., Gangadharan, L., Meng, X. (2013). Little emperors: Behavioral impacts of China’s one-child policy. Science, 339, 953-957. doi: 10.3886/ICPSR34521.v1.
This article investigated the effect of China’s one-child policy on different behaviors, comparing behavioral trends in people who were born in the years just before and just after the implementation of the one-child policy. One of the more notable results was that participants born under the one-child policy scored higher in neuroticism and lower in contentiousness in comparison with those born before the policy. The study concluded that the observed behavioral differences between those born just before and just after the one-child policy would greatly magnify as time went on, due to very limited extended family and living in a world of predominantly only children. This article provides valuable insight into the behavioral changes of the average person in China as a result of the one-child policy. The authors were able to use data that was actively generated for this article, rather than piecing together already-existing data like many other studies on the subject, which was very refreshing to see. This article would provide a solid resource to use as it presents a very data-based approach to this aspect of the one-child policy.
Huang, W., Lei, X., Zhao, Y. (2016). One-child policy and the rise of man-made twins. Review of Economics and Statistics, 98(3), 467-476. doi: 10.1162/REST_a_00567
The authors of this study examined the correlation between China’s one-child policy and China’s sharp increase of reported twin births. The authors found that although China’s fertility rate was already decreasing before the advent of the policy, the number of reported twins had increased by one third in the last 30 years, sharply rising in 1979 when the one-child policy was fully implemented. The data suggested that there was a strong correlation between reported twin births and areas of China with higher fines for having more children than allowed. One of the key indicators used by the authors to determine fake twins was height differences between the children. Some of the limitations of this study included that the evidence for fake twins was merely suggestive, as the authors could not observe instances of fake twins directly. Additionally, the data used for the study was the largest pool to be found on height data, but the research was still limited by the sample size. This article is a good starting point for researching this unintended effect of the one-child policy and adding supplementary information, but does not provide enough thorough research to be used as a core resource.
Min, J., Xue, H., Wang, VHC., Li, M., Wang, Y. (2017). Are single children likely to be more overweight or obese than those with siblings? The influence of China’s one-child policy on childhood obesity. Preventative Medicine, 103, 8-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypme d.2017.07.018
The purpose of this research was to study the correlation between China’s one-child policy and childhood obesity within the Chinese population. The authors found that only children were four times more likely to be overweight or obese than children with siblings, with the likelihood of obesity trending higher as time went on. This effect was magnified in urban children, as compared with rural children due to factors like physical activity and recreational screen time. Furthermore, the authors concluded that China’s one-child policy most likely contributed to the country’s rising childhood obesity rates, and that any obesity intervention programs will need to take the one-child policy into account. One of the strengths of this study was the directness of the data, the authors focusing the data and analysis towards the subject, however the available data was limited. This article demonstrates one of the significant consequences of China’s one-child policy, and is a valuable resource towards researching these consequences on modern Chinese society.
Nie, J. (2016). Erosion of eldercare in China: a socio-ethical inquiry in aging, elderly suicide and the government’s responsibilities in the context of the one-child policy. Aging International, 41(4), 350-365. doi: 10.1007/s12126-016-9261-7.
This article studied on the impact that the one-child policy has had on eldercare within China, and how the policy has accelerated the country’s aging population without a plan or policy in place to ease the transition. The paper focused on the socio-ethical responsibilities of the individual and of society towards its elder population, and also explored the topic of elderly suicide, a result of improper or insufficient eldercare. This article emphasized the correlation between China’s one-child policy and its radical effect on the current population structure, which has led to an oft-forgotten aging society. The information and analysis presented in this article supports and greatly expands upon one of the more severe effects of the one-child policy on Chinese society.
Song, Y. (2014). Losing an only child: The one-child policy and elderly care in China. –Reproductive Health Matters, 22(43), 113-124. doi: 10.1016/S0968-8080(14)43755-8
The author delved deeper into the one-child policy’s effects on China’s aging population, focusing on families who have lost their only child. According to the article, the effects of losing an only child upon these aging family not only includes profound grief that is always associated with the death of a child, but also rising fear for their futures, indebtedness, social stigmatization, severe depression or other mental health issues as they face their elderly years without familial support or care. The author suggested that the only way to support these aging families was substantial reform of both the one-child policy and all government policies related to elderly care (this article was published before the end of the one-child policy). This article provides an in-depth discussion of a serious consequence of the one-child policy, using specific cases and several different data sources, bringing to light one of the largest issues facing Chinese society today.