A complete sentence must contain a subject—person, place, or thing—and a verb—the action of the subject. Of course, sentences get more complicated than just two words, but this subject and verb structure is the foundation of all sentences.
A main clause is a complete statement.
· Your order will arrive Thursday.
· He dreaded talking to his supplier.
· I plan to enroll for summer school classes.
A subordinate clause has a subject and verb but is not a complete statement.
· If you place your order by Monday
· Because he was afraid the product would be out of stock
· Since I want to graduate next spring
A clause with one of the following words will be subordinate: after, although, though, because, since, before, until, if, when, whenever, while, and as.
A phrase is a group of words that do not contain both a subject and verb.
· With our current schedule
· As a result
· After talking to my advisor
Fixing Common Grammatical Errors
This part looks at five common grammatical errors: agreement, case, dangling modifiers, misplace modifiers, and parallel structures.
Agreement means the subject and verbs agree when they are both singular or both plural.
· When the subject of a sentence is composed of two or more nouns or pronouns connected by and, use a plural verb. Example: She and her friends are at the fair.
· When two or more singular nouns or pronouns are connected by or or nor, use a singular verb. Example: The book or the pen is in the drawer.
· When a compound subject contains both a singular and a plural noun or pronoun joined by or or nor, the verb should agree with the part of the subject that is nearer the verb. Examples: The boy or his friends run every day. His friends or the boy runs every day.
· Doesn’t is a contraction of does not and should be used only with a singular subject. Don’t is a contraction of do not and should be used only with a plural subject. The exception to this rule appears in the case of the first person and second person pronouns I and you. With these pronouns, the contraction don’t should be used. Examples: He doesn’t like it. They don’t like it.
· Do not be misled by a phrase that comes between the subject and the verb. The verb agrees with the subject, not with a noun or pronoun in the phrase. Examples: One of the boxes is open. The team captain, as well as his players, is anxious.
· The words each, each one, either, neither, everyone, everybody, anybody, anyone, nobody, somebody, someone, and no one are singular and require a singular verb. Examples: Each of these hot dogs is juicy. Everybody knows Mr. Jones. Either is correct.
· Nouns such as civics, mathematics, dollars, measles, and news require singular verbs. Example: The news is on at six. Note: the word dollars is a special case. When talking about an amount of money, it requires a singular verb, but when referring to the dollars themselves, a plural verb is required. Examples: Five dollars is a lot of money. Dollars are often used instead of rubles in Russia.
· Nouns such as scissors, tweezers, trousers, and shears require plural verbs. (There are two parts to these things.) Examples: These scissors are dull. Those trousers are made of wool.
· In sentences beginning with there is or there are, the subject follows the verb. Since there is not the subject, the verb agrees with what follows. Examples: There are many questions. There is a question.
· Collective nouns are words that imply more than one person but that are considered singular and take a singular verb, such as group, team, committee, class, and family. Examples: The team runs during practice. The committee decides how to proceed.
· Expressions such as with, together with, including, accompanied by, in addition to, or as well do not change the number of the subject. If the subject is singular, the verb is too. Examples: The President, accompanied by his wife, is traveling to India. All of the books, including yours, are in that box.
Case refers to the grammatical role a noun or pronoun plays in a sentence. The pronoun cases are simple though. There are only three:
1. Subjective case: pronouns used as subject are I, you, he, she, it, one, who, we, and they.
2. Objective case: pronouns used as objects of verbs or prepositions are me, you, him, her, it, one, whom, us, and them.
3. Possessive case: pronouns which express ownership are my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, one’s, whose, our, ours, their, and theirs.