How do the authors describe the validity of The Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WAYS).
a. discriminant validity demonstrated that each subscale measured the same constructs.
b. evidence of validity from contrasting groups because they gave it to spouses of MS nurses.
c. no was no mention of determining the validity of WAYS questionnaire.
d. The authors had experience with administering this questionnaire.
13. What types of questionnaires or surveys were used in this research study? (Select all that apply.)
a. The authors developed the Professional Quality of Life Scale.
b. Interviews were reportedly used, but the authors do not explain what was included in them.
c. The authors developed their own questions to ask about demographic information.
d. The authors report adding a few of their own questions at the end of the demographic questionnaire.
e. This study did not use any questionnaires or surveys.
f. The authors used previously developed questionnaires or surveys to measure the study
14. Were any physiological measurements collected from the subjects for the purpose of this study?
Question 15- 16: Data Collection. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12)
15. Which one of the following best describes the data collection process used in this study?
a. questionnaires / surveys were completed via the telephone.
b. participants were given the questionnaires on enrollment in the study and asked to drop the sealed envelope in a locked box at the nurse’s station.
c. questionnaires / surveys were mailed to the prospective participants and returned in a self-
addressed stamped envelope.
d. nurse researchers interviewed the study participants in a focus group.
16. If there were more than one data collector for the study, would an estimation of inter-rater reliability be an important concept for the authors to report on for this study?
a. yes, and the authors reported their efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.
b. yes, but the authors do not discuss any efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.
c. no, the issue of inter-rater reliability does not apply here.
Question 17 – 19: Data Analysis. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)
17. What descriptive statistics are used in this study? (Select all that apply).
d. standard deviation
f. percentage distributions
18. What inferential statistics were used to examine the data obtained from the subjects? (Select all that apply)
a. Bivariate correlational analysis
b. Factor Analysis
g. regression analysis
h. None of the above inferential statistics were used in this study.
19. What is the level of significance (alpha) set at for this study?
a. .05 or 5%
b. .10 or 90%
c .01 or 1%
d. an alpha level or level of significance chosen by the authors was not specifically mentioned in the text
of the article.
Question 20-25: Researcher’s Interpretation of the Findings. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)
20. There are several statistically significant findings in this study. Which of these statements from the article would be considered a significant and predicted result? (select all that apply)
a. As MS nurses’ perceptions of their stress increases, their use of ways to cope increases (r = .357, P<.00)
b. Younger nurses have lower levels of perceived stress, per post hoc Tukey analysis.
c. Baby boomers tend to report higher use of self-controlling behaviors than Gen X and Gen Y nurses when dealing with occupational stressors.
d. The stress perception level is thus determined by the type of occupational stressor that the nurse is
21. Which of these statements from the article would be considered a non-significant result. (Select all that apply)
a. The older the nurse, the higher the level of stress.
b. There was no difference between the scores on ways of coping related to age cohorts (F2158 = 1.12, P=.33)
c. Age, years of experience, and educational levels are not significant factors in levels of perceived stress among MS nurses.
when dealing with occupational stressors.
22. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered clinically important?
turnover in MS nurses.
b. Younger nurses have better coping skills to combat perceived stress compared to more
c. Baby boomers reported higher use of self-controlling behaviors when dealing with occupational
stressors compared with Gen X and Gen Y.
d. Six participants were removed from the study due to incomplete surveys.
23. Which statements below implied from the article would be considered a limitation of the study? (Select all that apply)
a. The researchers utilized a qualitative method in the research design.
b. Lack of standardization of the conditions of administering the instruments.
c. A small sample size with a low response rate.
d. A measure of social desirability in giving responses as the participants worked with the researcher.
24. Which one of these statements would be considered a statement regarding generalization of these results?
a. The results indicated that there were high levels of perceived stress in this group of MS nurses and can be generalized to all MS nurses in the United States.
b. The survey was mailed only to MS nurses who were members of the Medical Surgical Nurses Association (MSNA).
c. A convenience sample of MS nurses decreases generalizability.
d. The use of a power analysis influenced the generalization of the results to all MS nurses.
25. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered a recommendation for future studies? (Select al that apply.)
a. Future development of programs to help relieve the occupational stress in MS nurses.
c. Sufficiently educating nursing leaders in generational differences.
d. Identification of occupational stressors, perceived stress, and coping styles among generational cohorts.