1. Criminal Justice and human behavior can be studied scientifically.
2. The “Chicago School” founded by Burgess and Park was influential in our understanding of why children failed in schools.
3. In deductive reasoning, one starts from a general law and applies that law to a particular instance.
4. In using scientific inquiry, in deduction we reason toward observations; in induction we reason from observations.
5. If a number of social scientists agree that a phenomenon exists, they are using intersubjective agreement for objectivity.
6. Grounded theory is used to describe the deductive method of theory construction.
7. A hypothesis is a specified expectation about an empirical reality derived from axioms.
8. A paradigm and a theory refer to two different things. The paradigm is a fundamental model or scheme that organizes our view of something.
9. Research on criminal justice policy is an example of applied research.
10. The ecological approach to understanding crime suggests that human behavior is partially the result of the physical and social environment where the behavior takes place.
1. Much of the current social science research has moved from description to:
2. Much of the current research in criminal justice and criminology focuses upon which of the following?
a. basic building block of a concept
b. concept’s theoretical counterpart
c. systematic explanation for the observed facts and laws that relate to a particular aspect of life
d. principle or law
3. Which of the following is not an example of a concept?
b. peer group
c. indoor temperature
d. social disorganization
4. Which of the following constitute facts related to variables?
a. the empirical counterpart to a concept
b. variables can only be one value
c. more broad than concepts
d. cannot be observed
5. In the concentric zone theory of the “Chicago School” the zone of transition is characterized by:
a. the citizens that formed the core of morality for the city
b. the wealthiest citizens of Chicago
c. low-income immigrants from Europe initially
d. people who relocated from the suburbs
6. Observation involves all of the following except:
a. conducting experiments
b. interviewing people
c. watching people and detailing what you see
d. statistical manipulation
7. Which of the following is not an example of a type of statement?
8. Socrates is mortal and observing a number of other people. All the observed people are mortals. All people are mortal. This is an example of what type of logic?
9. Which of the following is an example of subjectivity?
a. which rap singer do you like the best
b. what was your score on your first research methods exam
c. did Judge Wilson have more mistrials than Judge Hughey
d. how much tuition does your university charge for full time students
10. Which type of research frequently involves the inductive method?
a. field research
d. use of existing data such as the Uniform Crime Reports
11. Which of the following is another word for objectivity?
b. intersubjective agreement
12. Which of the following is an example of a concept?
b. peer group
13. Which of the following is an example of a variable?
a. social disorganization
c. social class
d. annual family income
14. An axiom is a type of
15. Which of the following is not an example of a hypothesis?
a. males score higher in math than females.
b. poor children have higher delinquency rates than do middle-class children.
c. why is the sky dark at night?
d. those who study daily will have the highest grades
16. Which of the following illustrates situational crime prevention?
a. use of management, design, or the manipulation of the environment to reduce crime
b. using prison to reduce crime by keeping offenders away from the public
c. increasing police presence in high crime areas
d. offender home checks
17. Which of the following are not efforts that you can employ as situational crime prevention techniques?
a. keeping your car doors locked when you park
b. using a steering wheel lock every time you exit your car
c. call the police immediately after you realize that your car has been vandalized
d. use removable stereo systems
18. Which of the following is accurate with respect to paradigms?
a. paradigms consist of groups of hypotheses
b. paradigms are ways of organizing our views
c. paradigms are hypotheses linked in a logical framework
d. all statements are accurate
19. Research on a criminal justice related policy is an example of
a. explanatory research
b. descriptive research
c. applied research
d. exploratory research
20. In an inductive approach to policy development, the final step is
a. monitoring results
b. collecting data
c. analysis of situation
d. systematic study