criminal justice practitioner roles
The final project for this course will allow you to see yourself in a range of criminal justice practitioner roles. Each position will require you to address different issues and concerns indicative of that area of criminal justice—some requiring research, others requiring you to apply methods of inquiry, all leading to the creation of a case analysis portfolio. The final project is supported by two milestones, which will be submitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final submissions. These milestones will be submitted in Modules Two and Four. The final submission will occur in Module Seven. In this assignment, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following course outcomes: •Illustrate the major historical milestones of criminal law in the United States for their impact on the criminal Justice system and the role of the practitioner
•Evaluate constitutional parameters set by courts for their influence on the performance of law‐enforcement agencies
•Evaluate the impact of emerging technology on the development of an ethical criminal investigation • Apply the sociological and criminological scientific methods of inquiry to determine a defendant’s mental state and possible criminal defenses for case preparation
Prompt For the final assessment, you will need to imagine yourself in a variety of criminal justice practitioner roles. You will be presented with a series of case scenarios and will be required to address each of them by utilizing case law research. You will then have to make decisions based on your findings, evidence, and any procedural knowledge you have obtained throughout the course.
The final submission will require you to respond to each one of the following situations and compile them together for a case analysis portfolio. Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:
I. Miranda A uniformed police officer is dispatched to a bank robbery. Upon arrival, John Smith is already under arrest by the detectives for committing the robbery and shooting the guard. He is placed in the back of the officer’s cruiser. During the drive back to the station, Smith yells out, “I am so sorry I shot him!” One month later, the officer is called to testify about Smith’s statement. Smith’s defense attorney argues that the officer failed to read him his Miranda rights. Consider if his statements are admissible given the fact he was not read his Miranda Rights prior to making them. A.Imagine yourself as the judge presiding over this case. Clearly and accurately evaluate the constitutional parameters that emerged from the Miranda decision. How has this case influenced the practice of law enforcement? B.Describe your ruling for the bank robbery case, citing the Miranda case. How did Miranda influence your decision‐making process?
II. Jewelry Store Robbery A detective was conducting surveillance outside a jewelry store that had been robbed several times in the past month. It was 85°F outside, and he witnessed three men pacing in front of the store who appeared to be acting nervous. One of the men was wearing a heavy sweatshirt (later identified as Wilson), while the others were wearing t-shirts. The detective exited his cruiser and approached the three men. The detective conducted a pat frisk of Wilson and found a hard object in the front pocket of the sweatshirt. He reached his hand into the pocket and located a handgun. He placed all three under arrest and later tied all of them to the repeat burglaries. In court, Wilson’s attorney argued that the detective conducted an illegal search when he located the handgun. Imagine yourself now as the judge.
A.In order to avoid defense attorneys making this kind of claim in court, new technology could be utilized to aid in the development of cases and in prosecutions. What types of new technology could the detective have employed in his surveillance and arrest that might have helped avoid the defense attorney’s claim of illegal search? Evaluate the impact these types of technology have had on ethical investigations. B.Based on the U.S. Supreme Court case Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 (1968), how would you rule in this case? Be sure to defend your ruling with evidentiary support.
C.Did the ruling justices’ decision in Terry v. Ohio influence the effective performance of law‐enforcement agencies? Defend your position using evidence from the current case as well as the Supreme Court case.
III. Rape Investigation You are now a detective assigned to conduct a rape investigation.
A. Select an emerging technology available for investigating rape‐related crimes. How has this technology positively or negatively impacted criminal investigations? Support your argument(s) using specific examples.
B.Taking into consideration U.S. Supreme Court rulings, what are any limitations or regulations you may encounter in utilizing this technology to conduct an ethical investigation?
IV. Pre‐Sentence Investigation
A 14‐year old juvenile was just convicted of murder, and sentencing is approaching. Imagine yourself as a probation officer assigned to conduct the presentence investigation. Research Miller v. Alabama and use it to guide you on how you would approach this case. A.Based on Miller v. Alabama, what are the constitutional constraints placed upon the judge to come to an ethical and proper sentence in the current case? B.How did the Miller v. Alabama case transform sentencing laws and impact the role of the criminal justice practitioner? Support your response with examples.
V. Hinckley On March 30, 1981, John Hinckley attempted to kill President Reagan. There were several witnesses to the shooting, and the evidence was overwhelming. Research this case and imagine yourself as Hinckley’s defense attorney. A.Apply the Model Penal Code test to this case to determine Hinckley’s mental state defense and what the jury’s verdict would have to be. Be sure to defend your response. B.After the Hinckley verdict was reached, many states opted for a new test to be utilized. The Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1984 shifted the burden of proof from prosecution to defense. Apply the present statutory test to the case. How do you believe the jury would vote if Hinckley were tried today? Why? C.What historical milestone case involving the Second Amendment emerged from the events of this situation? How has this case impacted the criminal justice practitioner?
VI. Defense Attorney You are a defense attorney. You have a client who is charged with raping and killing four boys. After killing them, he dismembered them and ate them. Your client thinks he did nothing wrong. A.Based on the client’s mental state, what would you argue for a defense for the client? Ensure that you apply and explain any relevant sociological and criminological scientific methods of inquiry you would use in devising your argument.
VII. Jim Aiken Jim Aiken comes home early from work and finds his wife in bed with the mailman. He immediately shoots and kills the mailman. Aiken then goes downstairs, makes himself a sandwich, and watches TV while his wife is frozen in fear in bed. After two hours, Aiken goes back upstairs and shoots and kills his wife. You have been tasked with preparing the case for his defense attorney.
A.Applying the appropriate sociological and criminological scientific methods of inquiry, what crime did Aiken commit regarding the mailman, and what possible defense could be used? B.What crime did Aiken commit regarding his wife, and what possible defense could be used? Support your response by explaining how you applied the scientific methods of inquiry.