Culture and History
1. Briefly describe some (at least four) aspects of Greek culture prior to and at the time of Socrates and Plato.
2. What does it mean to say that a culture is “mythopoetic”? What was the cultural significance of the ‘Tales” of Homer and Hesiod?
3. Before 500 BC the Greeks answer to, how does one live a good life was, “to follow the gods and to accept moira (fate).” After 400 BC the answer to this question was not as clear to them. Why? What had happened?
4. Who is Aristophanes, and what image does he give us of Socrates in his play The Clouds? Is this reflection of Socrates historically accurate? Explain.
5. Who were the Sophists? What type of courses did the Sophists teach? (3-5 sentence reply)
6. What meaning did the Sophists give to the expression “might makes right”?
7. What were the major “concerns” of the Sophist?
8. Define: Cosmology, Cosmogony, and Theogony.
9. What do you think Protagoras meant when he said “man is the measure of all things”?
10. What was the principle difference between Socrates and the Sophist? What was Socrates “looking for” that the Sophists were not?
The Pre-Socratics from Science to Philosophy
11. According to the readings, what were the specific tasks for Socrates and Plato?
12. “Plato disliked the poets and the artists.” Why?
13. What does it mean to say “The Greeks were moving from MYTH to PHILOSOPHY”?
14. What were the “underlying assumptions” of the early philosophers, the early scientists, about Greek culture?
15. What was unique about the “works” pre-Socratic philosophers? What were they searching for and what did they base their thinking on? Explain.
16. What was Thales looking for?
17. What were the 4 basic elements for Empedocles?
18. What was Pythagoras fundamental contribution to the world of though?
19. What did Heraclitus believe about all things?
20. What was reality for Parmenides?
21. What sort of questions was Socrates concerned with? List a few of the “key events in Socrates lifetime.”
22. Why did the Delphic Oracle say “there is no one wiser than Socrates”? How did Socrates interpret this?
Socrates’ Trial and in Prison
23. What did Meletus accuse Socrates of? Approximately how old was Socrates, and what significance does it have at his trial?
24. Who is Euthyphro and what was the nature of the discussion he had with Socrates? And, what is the Divine Command Theory?
25. What was the nature of Socrates trial? What was Socrates Defense? Why was he convicted? Why was he sentenced to death?
26. Socrates believed that no harm can come to a good man, neither in life nor in death. What do you think he meant, and do you agree?
27. Why did Socrates think it was wrong to escape from jail and flee the city after his conviction?
Plato’s Theory of Forms
28. Briefly describe Plato’s Theory of Forms.
29. What are Socrates four arguments for the existence of the Soul?
30. Socrates said the “unexamined life is not worth living.” What do you think he meant by this? And, do you agree?