1.Explain the two main features that characterize the third line of host defense mechanisms.
2.Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) leads to the production of cancerous B cells, and treatment often involves bone marrow transplantation. Based upon your knowledge of lymphocyte development, explain how this procedure can lead to therapeutic effects in some patients.
3.Recently, scientists have been experimenting with using IRA-B cells as a treatment for hospitalized patients in an attempt to prevent them from getting septic infections. Speculate on what the principle behind this might be.
4.Provide an explanation to refute the following statement: Humans would never develop natural immunity to a novel biological agent created in a laboratory.
5. a.Explain how the anamnestic response is triggered by vaccination. b.Conduct additional research and discuss one current example illustrating how lack of herd immunity within a population has led to localized disease outbreaks in the United States.
1.Conduct additional research and discuss examples that illustrate how cancer can be both a cause of immune dysfunction and an effect of this process.
2.Summarize the roles of the microbiome and genetics in the development of type I allergic reactions. Discuss how probiotics or gene therapy could be used to alter an individual’s allergic response to antigen.
3. a.Draw a diagram illustrating whether or not each of the following transfusions would be immunologically compatible. Type A donor into a type B recipient Type B donor into a type AB recipient Type O– donor into a type O+ recipient b.Explain how xenotransplantation might be successful in light of the immune system’s robust ability to recognize foreign antigen.
4.Summarize the role of the immune system in the development of type I diabetes. Propose a strategy that could be used to protect young children from developing an autoimmune reaction, and subsequently type I diabetes, after a viral infection.
5.A patient in your unit exhibits frequent bouts of microbial infections and is found to produce extremely low levels of IgG and IgM antibodies. Your colleague suggests that the patient receive numerous vaccinations against a broad spectrum of common pathogens; you disagree. Why? Explain another treatment that may be beneficial to this patient.
1.Explain why specimens should be taken aseptically, even when nonsterile sites are being sampled and selective media are to be used, and explain why speed is important in the clinical testing process.
2.In the middle of an outbreak of measles (an infection that is highly communicable), a public health department is using immunologic testing to determine whether sick children have measles or not. If the children test positive, they are quarantined at home, and their contacts are counseled to update their MMR vaccine. In this situation, would you prefer to use a diagnostic test that is highly specific or one that is highly sensitive? Justify your answer.
3.Explain which type of ELISA can be used to determine an individual’s past exposure to a pathogen.
4.You are working at a health clinic, and a woman enters, suspecting that she was exposed to HIV two nights ago. a.Discuss whether or not she can be tested for HIV infection at this point. b.Summarize how you would respond to this patient, providing her with appropriate information regarding testing for HIV infection.
5.Compare and contrast the process of restriction analysis used in traditional DNA fingerprinting with the procedure used in pulse-field gel electrophoresis.
1.A young boy was at the playground when he felt a sharp pain on his leg. Upon inspection, his mother realized he had been stung by a bee. They went home and she carefully removed the stinger and washed the site well. Within a week, the site became swollen and painful; a red line appeared at the site, trailing up his leg.
a.Explain what condition the young boy appears to be suffering from and the most likely causative agent involved.
b.Discuss how the microbe may have gained access to the portal of entry.
2.A farmer working on a piece of machinery gets his shirtsleeve caught in a moving piece of the equipment. His shirt is sliced, and a sharp blade covered in mud slices through his upper arm. He attempts to control the bleeding and immediately seeks medical attention. After 3 days, he develops a fever and his arm becomes extremely swollen and painful. Pulling back the bandages, he finds that the wound has become blackened and is leaking a bloody fluid. Microscopic analysis of the fluid reveals the presence of gram-positive bacilli.
a.Discuss what condition the patient is suffering from and the likely causative agent of this infection.
b.Explain how the patient contracted this pathogenic microbe and what virulence factors contributed to the pathogenesis seen at the wound site.
c.In addition to antibiotics, the physician prescribes hyperbaric therapy. Describe what this treatment involves and how it could be therapeutic to this patient.
3. a.Conduct additional research, and discuss whether “pox parties” represent a safe method of developing immunity to varicella zoster virus.
b.Provide evidence in support of or refuting the following statement: Shingles develops when you are reinfected with varicella zoster virus later on in life.
4.Smallpox has a rich history—from prompting the first vaccine to potential use as a bioterrorism agent. Given what you know about the etiology of the disease and the current state of the world’s immunity to smallpox, discuss how effective (or ineffective) a smallpox biological weapon could be against a human population.
5.Your coworker says that her spouse is in the hospital for elective surgery and his recovery is complicated by two infections: He has chicken pox all over the upper half of his body, and shingles on his legs. What questions will you ask for clarification?
1. a.Explain why the nervous system is described as “immunologically privileged,” and discuss whether this provides a beneficial or disadvantageous effect in this system.
b.Discuss the defenses a pathogen encounters as it attempts to gain entry into the nervous system.
2.Conduct research and summarize the causative agent and mode of transmission behind the multistate meningitis outbreak linked to steroid injections that occurred in 2012. How did improper physical and chemical control methods play a major role in this outbreak? Did portal of entry play any role?
3.Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting white-tailed deer and elk. In 2005, venison from a deer testing positive for CWD was served during an annual wild-game dinner in the town of Verona in upstate New York. Based upon your knowledge of vCJD and related spongiform encephalopathies and any additional research you conduct, discuss whether any of the attendees are at risk for developing disease in the future.
4.As you learned in section 8.3, many types of fruits and vegetables can be fermented into alcoholic beverages. Such was the case recently when prisoners in Utah attempted to make an illegal beverage called “pruno”; however, someone added a weeks-old baked potato to the mix, letting a microbe into the party who was clearly uninvited. Consumers of the pruno began to develop difficulty swallowing, vomiting, double vision, and muscle weakness; three required ventilation therapy. No deaths were attributed to the contaminated beverage.
a.What disease were the prisoners suffering from, and what was the causative agent involved?
b.Based upon your knowledge of this disease, what form of treatment was used to successfully avoid the worst outcomes of the disease in these patients?
5.In August 2011, a soldier from Fort Drum in Watertown, New York, tested positive for rabies; he died less than 3 weeks later. Further investigation revealed that he actually became infected when he was bitten by a dog in January of the same year while stationed in Afghanistan. Discuss any risks the soldier posed to his platoon, explaining whether or not this fatal outcome could have been avoided.
1.Explain why cases of dengue fever have been observed beyond endemic regions of the world today. Discuss whether or not completely eradicating mosquito (vector) populations from disease-ridden areas is advisable.
2. a.Discuss whether or
not genetics plays a role in HIV infection, providing at least one example to illustrate your position.
b.Provide evidence in support of or refuting the following statement: An HIV-positive individual will always harbor the virus even if no viral load is detectable by PCR or other methods.
3.Explain why over the years the incidence of HIV infection has declined in the United States while the prevalence of AIDS has increased.
4. a.Compare and contrast various characteristics of hemorrhagic and non hemorrhagic fever diseases.
b.Provide an explanation for the observed increase in incidence of these zoonotic infections around the world today.
5.Several pathogens in this chapter are listed as Category A bio weapons by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). What characteristics of the pathogens in this chapter make them suited for mass infection with high mortality?