Describe and evaluate the various theories on the cause of domestic violence.
Family needs a maximum degree of behavioral manners for a smooth relation just like the community. A man’s character is at times hard to tell and maybe biased from time to time making it difficult to forecast, even by partaking actions that go with their social status and by honoring the most family and societal values, thereby making family and societies function in a civilized manner. When people within the family or society do not follow the set rules and regulations, it results in violence against their partners more so the female gender. Violence on women is found not only in several low-income households within a given society but also in the high-income households (Jackson, 2008). It is very difficult to find a family that has no problems with regard to domestic violence that targets the female gender. The cause of domestic violence varies from family to family, society to society, culture to culture, and religion to religion but in most scenarios, men have carried themselves out in such a manner portraying them as the superior in the family.
Since the early years theorists and scholars have invested much in finding out on the ever-spreading grievance of domestic violence that majorly affects female gender across religion, race, ethics, and socio-economic lines (Klein, 2009). This research paper seeks to find and address the reasons that lead to violence and came up with theories that give an insight of domestic violence. There are different theories providing an insight into domestic violence but the theories do not provide a full reason for violence against the female gender. The theories include; Feminist theory;
The theoretic notion of feminist started during the vigorous women movement for political positions in the 1970s. The main goal of the feminist proponents is to have a better knowledge of female gender oppression with regards to class, race, and sexual desires from the male gender. Proponents assert that domestic violence is largely defined as man’s oppression and coercion within a household, insinuating that domestic violence is an intuitional structural violence (Klein, 2009). Bride price associated with cruelty, rape, sexual assault, and women infanticide are other types of violence that female gender undergoes characterized by a simple goal of a man showing his power.
Feminist theory proponents subscribe to the idea of total equality between men and women in virtually all sectors and societal platforms. It is geared towards bringing to an end the male-controlled domination and majorly seeks to bring to an end women subjugation and abuse in the family setting and the other societal sectors (Klein, 2009). Feminist theory advocates argue that domestic violence is a depiction of an unbalanced power relationship between women and men in the society. Further asserting that domestic violence is a structural and methodical technique of patriarchal dominance of women that is basically made on man superiority and woman inferiority, uncivilized gender-based duties, male political dominance, and socio-economic dominance. Researchers assert that in most cases violence erupts in the family setting because the man wants to assert and maintain his dominance and powers within the family and acts violently when he feels challenged, insinuating that man uses violence as a gadget to maintain social structure within the family and in the society as a whole.
An important factor in any critical examination of domestic violence on women is anchored on gender. Cruelty on women insinuate that once gender plays a critical role in the societal operation system. It means that depending on one gender the society has made up individual functions, conducts, and prospects that are attributed to women and men (Klein, 2009)
. Society teachings on man’s association with dominance also contribute to domestic violence. The interpersonal structural violence created teaching men dominance, virility, strength, superiority, masculinity, and power and weakness, submissiveness, inferiority, and passivity in women contributes a lot in gender-based violence.
Family system theory
Family is the most significant institution in the determination of a person’s character. The family provides both social connection and environment at large and also fixes an individual character with the larger society. There is a notion that societal surrounding influences a kinds of character, response, and attitude towards his/her day to day encounters (E, 2005). Proponents of family system theory assert that social environment and the immediate family plays a critical part in creating a violent character in a person or not. The family system theory categorizes violence under generic factors, together with hormonal aspects, the social status of an individual, and the character of an individual.
The theory asserts that domestic violence erupts as a result of misinterpretation of once actions and statements, financial problems and stress, too much expectation, and noncompliance. Violence is also generic as it can follow characters like jealousy, suspicion, aggressive tendencies, and immaturity. All the causes of domestic violence have their source in the family, insinuating that violence can be cultured by kids from their parents who used violence to assert his powers and authority (E, 2005). Family system theory depicts women as victims of interpersonal institutional violence. The family system based on the underlying grounds of hierarchical system and division of labor with regards to gender provides a good environment for cultivating domestic violence, which will later be applied as a way of regulating and maintaining of family command, enduring that the man still dominates over the female.
The socio-psychological theory asserts that domestic violence can be understood by thoroughly and keenly looking at the surrounding reasons that exercise an influence on the character of an individual perpetrator. It asserts that domestic violence maybe as a result of family relation designs, and stressful circumstances one undergoes (E, 2005). When an individual does attaint his/her goal, he becomes unfulfilled and at times a frustrated person tends to rich out to others to try and address their issues. Such reach out in many occasions may not be polite but insulative in nature hence resulting to violence.
Socio-psychological theory assert that domestic violence may be as a result of deviation of the actual truth on a matter to what he/she thinks that should be the truth. On many occasions perversions of issues often lead to interpersonal institutional structural violence as an individual will have a formed opinion on a given matter. The socio-psychological theory further asserts that in a family or a community with an individual with low self-esteem may be prone to violence since they will always tend to use violence to thump their dominance, control, and power in the family and the society as a whole, thereby causes illegitimate violence (Bachman, 1992). Domestic violence that often results from low self-esteem always targets persons who are weak, defenseless, and has no danger of fighting back.
The cycle theory of violence and the psycho-social theory of learned helpless
Lenore walker a scholar that first examined cycle theory of violence and the psycho-social theory of learned helpless assert that domestic violence occurs gradually and in stages like the tension mounting stage that is also characterized by the accumulation of sense of danger, a small but lethal violent stage and reconstruction stage, where the warring parties come together and address their grievances (Bachman, 1992). Lenore walker further asserts that the tension builds up stage may last for a longer or shorter time; it is often characterized by serious insults and strong language that if not controlled properly may instantly lead to violence. The small but lethal violence in the second phase becomes unpreventable without an immediate mediator, as at this point there is ungoverned tension that has accumulated in both individuals. The cycle theory of violence and the psycho-social theory of learned helpless assert that the victims of domestic violence would submit to the notion that the development of some adoption techniques would aid in regulating violence like submitting to the dominant partner they can escape battering (Bachman, 1992). Lenore walker states that a majority of domestic violence victims often operate from the basis of helplessness that helps explains their inactiveness and their submission to the violent situation they are in. Even though Lenore walker assertions have been constantly challenged by many scholars on the grounds of victims’ sufferings economically, psychologically, and emotionally as a result of the abuses they go through but the same domestic violent pattern witnessed in some scenarios validates the theory.
Survivor theory portrays women as inactive victims but reactive help survivors and help seekers. Survivor theory encourages domestic violence victims to come up with different ways and methods to get assistance from both the informal and formal sectors of the society. The survivor theory further asserts the need for effective and effective distribution of resources in the society so that women would benefit too and salvage themselves from the constant domestic violence. It also appreciates the numerous attempts by women to get assistance in spite of intense violence against them (Bachman, 1992). The survivor theory further recognizes and takes into consideration the quest by women to encourage one another, their determination to get help, and their self-made progresses to curd domestic violence.