Describe and evaluate the various theories on the cause of domestic violence.
Family needs a maximum degree of behavioral manners for a smooth relation just like the community. A man’s character is at times hard to tell and maybe biased from time to time making it difficult to forecast, even by partaking actions that go with their social status and by honoring the most family and societal values, thereby making family and societies function in a civilized manner. When people within the family or society do not follow the set rules and regulations, it results in violence against their partners more so the female gender. Violence on women is found not only in several low-income households within a given society but also in the high-income households (Jackson, 2008). It is very difficult to find a family that has no problems with regard to domestic violence that targets the female gender. The cause of domestic violence varies from family to family, society to society, culture to culture, and religion to religion but in most scenarios, men have carried themselves out in such a manner portraying them as the superior in the family.
Since the early years theorists and scholars have invested much in finding out on the ever-spreading grievance of domestic violence that majorly affects female gender across religion, race, ethics, and socio-economic lines (Klein, 2009). This research paper seeks to find and address the reasons that lead to violence and came up with theories that give an insight of domestic violence. There are different theories providing an insight into domestic violence but the theories do not provide a full reason for violence against the female gender. The theories include; Feminist theory;
The theoretic notion of feminist started during the vigorous women movement for political positions in the 1970s. The main goal of the feminist proponents is to have a better knowledge of female gender oppression with regards to class, race, and sexual desires from the male gender. Proponents assert that domestic violence is largely defined as man’s oppression and coercion within a household, insinuating that domestic violence is an intuitional structural violence (Klein, 2009). Bride price associated with cruelty, rape, sexual assault, and women infanticide are other types of violence that female gender undergoes characterized by a simple goal of a man showing his power.
Feminist theory proponents subscribe to the idea of total equality between men and women in virtually all sectors and societal platforms. It is geared towards bringing to an end the male-controlled domination and majorly seeks to bring to an end women subjugation and abuse in the family setting and the other societal sectors (Klein, 2009). Feminist theory advocates argue that domestic violence is a depiction of an unbalanced power relationship between women and men in the society. Further asserting that domestic violence is a structural and methodical technique of patriarchal dominance of women that is basically made on man superiority and woman inferiority, uncivilized gender-based duties, male political dominance, and socio-economic dominance. Researchers assert that in most cases violence erupts in the family setting because the man wants to assert and maintain his dominance and powers within the family and acts violently when he feels challenged, insinuating that man uses violence as a gadget to maintain social structure within the family and in the society as a whole.
An important factor in any critical examination of domestic violence on women is anchored on gender. Cruelty on women insinuate that once gender plays a critical role in the societal operation system. It means that depending on one gender the society has made up individual functions, conducts, and prospects that are attributed to women and men (Klein, 2009)
. Society teachings on man’s association with dominance also contribute to domestic violence. The interpersonal structural violence created teaching men dominance, virility, strength, superiority, masculinity, and power and weakness, submissiveness, inferiority, and passivity in women contributes a lot in gender-based violence.
Family system theory
Family is the most significant institution in the determination of a person’s character. The family provides both social connection and environment at large and also fixes an individual character with the larger society. There is a notion that societal surrounding influences a kinds of character, response, and attitude towards his/her day to day encounters (E, 2005). Proponents of family system theory assert that social environment and the immediate family plays a critical part in creating a violent character in a person or not. The family system theory categorizes violence under generic factors, together with hormonal aspects, the social status of an individual, and the character of an individual.
The theory asserts that domestic violence erupts as a result of misinterpretation of once actions and statements, financial problems and stress, too much expectation, and noncompliance. Violence is also generic as it can follow characters like jealousy, suspicion, aggressive tendencies, and immaturity. All the causes of domestic violence have their source in the family, insinuating that violence can be cultured by kids from their parents who used violence to assert his powers and authority (E, 2005). Family system theory depicts women as victims of interpersonal institutional violence. The family system based on the underlying grounds of hierarchical system and division of labor with regards to gender provides a good environment for cultivating domestic violence, which will later be applied as a way of regulating and maintaining of family command, enduring that the man still dominates over the female.
The socio-psychological theory asserts that domestic violence can be understood by thoroughly and keenly looking at the surrounding reasons that exercise an influence on the character of an individual perpetrator. It asserts that domestic violence maybe as a result of family relation designs, and stressful circumstances one undergoes (E, 2005). When an individual does attaint his/her goal, he becomes unfulfilled and at times a frustrated person tends to rich out to others to try and address their issues. Such reach out in many occasions may not be polite but insulative in nature hence resulting to violence.
Socio-psychological theory assert that domestic violence may be as a result of deviation of the actual truth on a matter to what he/she thinks that should be the truth. On many occasions perversions of issues often lead to interpersonal institutional structural violence as an individual will have a formed opinion on a given matter. The socio-psychological theory further asserts that in a family or a community with an individual with low self-esteem may be prone to violence since they will always tend to use violence to thump their dominance, control, and power in the family and the society as a whole, thereby causes illegitimate violence (Bachman, 1992). Domestic violence that often results from low self-esteem always targets persons who are weak, defenseless, and has no danger of fighting back.
The cycle theory of violence and the psycho-social theory of learned helpless
Lenore walker a scholar that first examined cycle theory of violence and the psycho-social theory of learned helpless assert that domestic violence occurs gradually and in stages like the tension mounting stage that is also characterized by the accumulation of sense of danger, a small but lethal violent stage and reconstruction stage, where the warring parties come together and address their grievances (Bachman, 1992). Lenore walker further asserts that the tension builds up stage may last for a longer or shorter time; it is often characterized by serious insults and strong language that if not controlled properly may instantly lead to violence. The small but lethal violence in the second phase becomes unpreventable without an immediate mediator, as at this point there is ungoverned tension that has accumulated in both individuals. The cycle theory of violence and the psycho-social theory of learned helpless assert that the victims of domestic violence would submit to the notion that the development of some adoption techniques would aid in regulating violence like submitting to the dominant partner they can escape battering (Bachman, 1992). Lenore walker states that a majority of domestic violence victims often operate from the basis of helplessness that helps explains their inactiveness and their submission to the violent situation they are in. Even though Lenore walker assertions have been constantly challenged by many scholars on the grounds of victims’ sufferings economically, psychologically, and emotionally as a result of the abuses they go through but the same domestic violent pattern witnessed in some scenarios validates the theory.
Survivor theory portrays women as inactive victims but reactive help survivors and help seekers. Survivor theory encourages domestic violence victims to come up with different ways and methods to get assistance from both the informal and formal sectors of the society. The survivor theory further asserts the need for effective and effective distribution of resources in the society so that women would benefit too and salvage themselves from the constant domestic violence. It also appreciates the numerous attempts by women to get assistance in spite of intense violence against them (Bachman, 1992). The survivor theory further recognizes and takes into consideration the quest by women to encourage one another, their determination to get help, and their self-made progresses to curd domestic violence.
Traumatic theory depicts domestic violence in its different and unique interaction that results as a buildup outcome between the abuser and victim. Traumatic theory depicts institutional structural violence, as per the theory trauma of the violence makes up a great emotional bond that is associated with cognitive misrepresentation and character techniques that unintentionally and ultimately provide grounds for violence and creating a strong bond. A traumatic bond develops as a result of the character of the violence and abuse by its reinforcement via strong affection, portraying it to a structural violence too. The strong affection entails the changing of great intense of both negative and positive interaction (Payne, 2010). The traumatic theory also asserts that both the victim and abuser go through the same degree of mental torture that includes taking responsibility for the violence, trust, blame, and power. The traumatic theory further states that a traumatic bond and character will always put the victim at the state of being victimized over and over again and the abuser will always continue with his violent character.
As per the power theory domestic violence often result from power struggles that engulf most families and societies today. The theory asserts that the power struggle is entrenched within the family and society through gender and age balance. The power theory depicts how Structural violence at the international level occurs within the family setting (Payne, 2010). By starting that when a greater, stronger, and bigger are in a position to get more resources they will dominate over the less fortunate, weaker, and smaller members of the family with limited or no resources. The theory of power also depicts societal contribution to the domestic violence as from time immemorial male gender has always and automatically been granted permission to dominate and rule over the other family members specifically the female gender, in many occasions these privileges have been abused and women left at the mercies of their male masters depicting interpersonal institutional structural violence.
Stress theory assert that domestic violence is always as a result of stress, whether personal, economical, and social, the rise in tension and tress facilitates domestic violence. Stress theory asserts that individuals in the society of families who feel that they are socially neglected, victimized, power disparity, and abuse drugs are more likely to be violent to their partners. As per the theory power disparity might cause violence and at the same time might not cause violence depending on how the situation at hand would have been handled. Stress theory asserts that social neglect and drug abuse within the family catalyzes violence a great deal (Payne, 2010). For domestic violence victims, social neglect makes them feel that nobody cares about them and there is no possible way that they can bail themselves out. Even though, violence perpetrator may get some immediate relief after abusing his/her partner the abuser my also feel guilty and ashamed of his actions. The stress theory encourages individuals to develop a culture of dialog amongst family members in order to help in stress releasing and providing solutions to problems before escalating and resulting in violence in the long run.
A keen look and an in-depth analysis of the different reasons for domestic violence targeting mostly women and other age groups within the society. It depicts the etiology of violence is an indicator of historical injustices and inequalities both economically and administratively between women and men. The injustices in the distribution of resources have led to discrimination and domination of women by men, resulting in the prevention of women from fully realizing their progress. Domestic violence is most cases originate from the cultural forms, specifically the dangerous effects of some languages, races, religions, and sex (Jackson, 2008). Domestic violence is also fueled by social pressure, more so the shame of judging some acts that a partner may make.
Nonexistence of legislation that criminalizes domestic violence; lack of political goodwill to amend the standing law; insufficient effort of the government to conduct civil education, aimed at sensitizing the communities on the negative impact of domestic violence. Lack of proper and efficient mechanisms of monitoring and dealing with the perpetrators of domestic violence, which is the only way the war on domestic violence will be won. Even though dealing with the violence in totality may be a change couples in marriages should always seek assistance of sociologists, or marriage chancellors in order to help address the challenges that they face.
http//www.en.wikipedia/wiki/perversion last visited 06/05/2020
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Payne, B. J. (2010). Family Violence on the Reservation: Alife course Approach. chicago .