DRUG ABUSE AND ADDICTION
Public safety issue refers to any problem which threatens the wellbeing of people and prosperity of communities. A solution to such challenges is crucial in order to ensure that safety of people is protected and safeguarded. The issue of drug abuse and concern among school going teenagers has become a major problem in United States. According to a survey conducted by Monitoring the Future (MTF), on average, 29 percent of the school kids between grades 8, 10, and 12 were found to be using drugs. This has raised a major concern that requires the government to work closely with relevant public safety organizations in order to contain this issue.
Research Topic: The Importance of Introducing Drug Abuse Unit in The Curriculum of the American Education System
According to findings of Monitoring the Future survey released in 2018, there is a significant increase in number of school going youths engaging in drug abuse activities. Marijuana, opioid abuse, alcohol, synthetic drugs, tobacco, and nicotine are among the top drugs and substances abused by teenagers and school going kids. These statistics are alarming since they present one of the major challenge to the wellbeing and prosperity of the future generation. Many anti-drug abuse and addiction organizations such as National Institutes on Health (NIH), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), and National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) have been working relentlessly to curb this rising level of drug abuse and addiction among teenagers. Despite all the efforts by these organizations, their programs have failed to achieve any substantial success as far the fight against drug abuse and addiction among teenagers is concerned. This research is aimed at exploring the relevant literature from books, peer-reviewed journals, publications, and other academic effort in the effort to present the dire need to integrate drug abuse into the curriculum of the American education system. The findings of the research will be a boost to the government and other public safety organizations in the fight against drug abuse and addiction among teenagers and school going youths.
Duncan, D. T., Palamar, J. J., & Williams, J. H. (2014). Perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among US high school seniors. Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy, 9(1), 35.
The paper explores the problem of marijuana use among the students in U.S. high schools. Notably, more than 45.5 percent of the respondents revealed that they have used marijuana once on their lifetime while the other 36.4 percent revealing that they have used marijuana in the last one year. Additionally, another 22.7 percent of the respondents noting that they have been constantly using marijuana in the last one month. Moreover, 4.5 percent of them revealed that they are cocaine addicts. The findings of this paper are crucial to this research because they show that no interventions have been put in place to counter this problem. Hence, our research will be crucial in ensuring that school going teenagers are taught many things about drug abuse and the need to avoid them.
Kwan, M., Bobko, S., Faulkner, G., Donnelly, P., & Cairney, J. (2014). Sport participation and alcohol and illicit drug use in adolescents and young adults: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. Addictive behaviors, 39(3), 497-506.
The authors present a clear view on the association between sport participation and increased use of alcohol among school going teenagers. High school and college students participating in sports have been linked to alcohol abuse though this varies by gender or kind of sport. However, there is clear evidence that school going teenagers involved in various sporting activities abuse different kind of drugs hence the need to address this issue. The findings of this paper are relevant to my research since they show the reality of drug abuse among school going students and why preventive interventions are crucial.
Leonard, N. R., Gwadz, M. V., Ritchie, A., Linick, J. L., Cleland, C. M., Elliott, L., & Grethel, M. (2015). A multi-method exploratory study of stress, coping, and substance use among high school youth in private schools. Frontiers in psychology, 6, 1028.
The article acknowledges the existence of major stress-causing factors among school youth and teenagers. Consequently, students turn into drugs as the only strategy of coping with chronic stress is has become synonymous with teenagers in the adolescent stage. Social and academic challenges have forced teenagers to seek refuge in alcohol and other hard drugs which compromises their normal mental functioning. The study which involved more than 100 11th grade students revealed that drug and substance abuse behavior may end up ruining the future of the victims in their later stages of life. The paper is relevant to this research since it shows the reality of drug abuse and addiction in schools and the need to address this alarming issue.
Miller-Day, M. A., Alberts, J., Hecht, M. L., Trost, M. R., & Krizek, R. L. (2014). Adolescent relationships and drug use. Psychology Press.
The authors of this book explores the reality of drug and substance abuse among teenagers and school going adolescents. The covers several factors which lead to drug abuse among adolescents. These causes include peer norms, lack of parental guidance, as well as lack of programs meant to address this menace. This book is crucial and relevant to my research since it presents the whole concept and reality of drug abuse among adolescents and school going teenagers. This forms the basis for my argument and why school-based programs and teachings will be appropriate in addressing the vice of drug abuse and addiction.
Onrust, S. A., Otten, R., Lammers, J., & Smit, F. (2016). School-based programmes to reduce and prevent substance use in different age groups: What works for whom? Systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 44, 45-59.
The authors of this paper explores the issue of school-based programs and their impact in preventing and reducing the cases of drug and substance abuse. The paper acknowledges the fact that teenagers and adolescents are at a high risk of engaging in drug abuse behaviors which can lead to certain disorders in life. Notably, programs formulated to target the youths on the issue of drug abuse and addiction can only be effective if they are implemented in schools. Considerably, school is one of the most appropriate venue where teenagers and adolescents can be reached in huge numbers. This paper is crucial for this research since it forms the basis for establishment of school-based programs meant to fight drug abuse and addiction. Making the programs compulsory will thus essential since teenager will learn the effects of drug abuse and how to avoid drugs for a better future.
Palamar, J. J., Zhou, S., Sherman, S., & Weitzman, M. (2014). Hookah use among US high school seniors. Pediatrics, 134(2), 227.
The article shows a significant increase in the use of hookah among high school seniors in U.S. Moreover, the paper shows that many American adolescents are engaging themselves in smoking tobacco products such as cigars, hookahs, and shisha. Notably, the number has increased from 18 percent to 21.4 percent. However, the paper shows not interventions geared towards handling this issue which lead to esophageal cancer, infertility, lung cancer, among other problems. The paper is important to this research since it shows the rising level of tobacco abuse among adolescents and the effects it has to the users who are mostly high school students.
Patrick, M. E., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2014). Prevalence and predictors of adolescent alcohol use and binge drinking in the United States. Alcohol research: current reviews, 35(2), 193.
According to the authors, “alcohol is the most commonly abused substance among American youth” This seems to have long-term consequences on the users. The respondents –among them the 8th, 10th, and 12th graders –acknowledged that they have been drinking alcohol for more than five times in the past one month. However, the intervention and prevention efforts have been minimal. This paper is relevant to my research since it shows how school-going adolescents are involved in alcohol abuse and the lack of preventive measures. Thus, there is need to have an intervention like the one proposed by my research in order to curb the rising cases of drug abuse among teenagers.
Singh, T. (2016). Characteristics of electronic cigarette use among middle and high school students—United States, 2015. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 65.
This paper presents the issue of electronic cigarette use among youths in U.S. Considerably, 5.3 percent of middle school teenagers and 16 percent of the high school students have been using electronic cigarettes. However, comprehensive and sustainable strategies to prevent this menace are missing. The paper is equally important to my research since it shows how youths have been addicted to e-cigarettes and lack of prevention strategies. Hence, my research will be crucial since it will address this issue comprehensively because teenagers will be taught on the effects of e-cigarettes abuse and how to avoid them.
Strøm, H. K., Adolfsen, F., Fossum, S., Kaiser, S., & Martinussen, M. (2014). Effectiveness of school-based preventive interventions on adolescent alcohol use: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy, 9(1), 48.
This paper explores the issue of alcohol abuse among the teenagers and the negative effects this behavior can have in their future life. According to the study, 39 percent of the respondents admitted that they first took alcohol at the age of 13 years and below. Additionally, this early use of alcohol has proved to have a myriad of challenges to addicts later in life. The authors further notes that despite having several school-based intervention programs, most of them have not been effective. This paper is essential to my research since it reveals the state of alcohol abuse among teenagers and why the current school based interventions are ineffective. This shows the need to adopt a more appropriate strategy which involves making the drug abuse subject compulsory to all schools across U.S.
Wills, T. A., Knight, R., Williams, R. J., Pagano, I., & Sargent, J. D. (2015). Risk factors for exclusive e-cigarette use and dual e-cigarette use and tobacco use in adolescents. Pediatrics, 135(1), e43.
The authors of the paper present a major challenge facing adolescents as far as the use of electronic cigarettes is concerned. About 17 percent of the respondents admitted that they are using e-cigarettes, marijuana, and alcohol. The prevalence is indeed high and it exposes the adolescents to various health issues including lung cancer. This paper is relevant to my research since its findings are a clear reflection of the rate of smoking e-cigarettes among school-going teenagers and why prevention interventions are necessary as presented in my research topic.