When non-local species spread rapidly across large areas, they are called (1pts) alien species. invasive species. exotic species. native species. endangered species. 2) The term biodiversity is a buzzword that incorporates the following: I. genetic variation. II. the number of different species adjusted for relative abundance. III. variability of habitat. (1pts) I I, II, and III I and III II I and II 3) One of the first acts of ecosystem conservation in American history can be seen through the (1pts) creation of Pelican Island national wildlife refuge. establishment of wilderness preservation areas. creation of the Environmental Protection Agency. establishment of Yellowstone National Park. congress passing the multiple-use sustained-yield act. 4) Which of the following ecosystem types has only recently gained attention in the practice of conservation? (1pts)
Tropical rain forests Grasslands and prairies Sensitive marine habitats Red wood forests Wetlands 5) Including the mass extinction events that occurred prior to human existence, ecologists hypothesize that human activity could currently be the reason behind mass extinction number (1pts) two. three. four. five. six. 6) The event that is defined by the last member of a species dying is termed (1pts) extirpation. endangerment. extinction. endemic. exclusion. 7) A high degree of genetic diversity within a species would be important for all of the following reasons EXCEPT (1pts) higher disease resistance. greater protection against environmental change. increased access to beneficial traits. higher overall species diversity. lower potential for inbreeding depression. 8) The IUCN labels species that are at high risk of extinction as (1pts) threatened. extinct. extirpated. species of special concern. endemic. 9) The most severe effect resulting from loss of insect species globally would likely be (1pts) an increase in disease vectors. a reduction in water quality. an increase in soil erosion. a loss of aesthetic value.
a decline in food crop pollination. 10) All of the following are appropriate terms to describe a species that is present in an area where it does not normally occur EXCEPT (1pts) endemic. non-native. invasive. alien. exotic. 11) River barriers such as dams are an example of which of the following factors that can lead to species endangerment? (1pts) Exotic species introduction Habitat alteration Direct exploitation Pollution Commercial harvesting 12) Which of the following aquatic species provides a habitat for thousands of other species? (1pts) Coral reefs Bottlenose dolphins Sea urchins Manta rays Clown fish 13) Creating patchy forested habitat by fragmentation increases the potential for edge effect, which may impact songbird populations by (1pts) creating greater food availability. reducing large mammalian predators. increasing the potential for nest parasitism by species such as the brown-headed cowbird. increasing the impact of UV light damage on nest sites. increasing gene flow. 14) Alien species often pose a threat to native species because (1pts) native species are less genetically diverse than alien species. alien species often have no natural enemies in their new location. both share similar parasite types. the non-native species does not compete with native species. native species refuse to mate with other native species.
15) Which of the following factors are important in promoting species endangerment and ultimately extinction? I. Habitat destruction II. Exotic species introduction III. Increased tropospheric ozone (1pts) I I and III I and II III I, II, and III 16) A pronounced example of humans overharvesting a species to extinction may be seen in the tragedy surrounding the (1pts) passenger pigeon. bison. American alligator. African elephant. blue whale. 17) The primary reason for the overharvesting of species stems from (1pts) market demand for goods associated with a species. apathy toward species conservation. religious doctrine that poses man as superior. lack of legislation forbidding harvesting. lack of food support from the United Nations. 18) The international legislation that establishes a “red list” for species susceptible to trade and thus endangerment is called the (1pts) Endangered Species Act. Lacey Act. Marine Mammal Protection Act. Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species.
National Environmental Protection Act. 19) In the United States, which agency is responsible for monitoring the import of threatened species as well as administering the Endangered Species Act? (1pts) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Environmental Protection Agency U.S. Forest Service The National Park Service The Sierra Club 20) The United States legislation that is designed specifically to protect organisms such as manatees, polar bears, sea otters, and sea lions would be the (1pts) Endangered Species Act. National Marine Fisheries Act. Marine Mammal Protection Act. Lacey Act. Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species. 21) According to the principles of island biogeography, which of the following factors increases island biodiversity? I. Increased proximity to the mainland II. Increased island size III. Increased amount of edge habitat (1pts) I only I and II III only I, II, and III II and III 22) If habitat is in need of management to connect separate populations, the best way to promote gene flow is to implement (1pts) catch-and-release programs.
captive breeding in zoos. habitat corridors. an increase in edge habitat. introduction of exotic species. 23) An abrupt transition in habitat that brings two communities into contact with each other is called:\ (1pts) edge habitat. ecotone. riparian zone. corridor. patch perimiter. 24) The phenomenon of forgiving the debt of economically underprivileged nations in exchange for preserving habitat for biodiversity is known as (1pts) NAFTA. the Montreal Protocol. the Kyoto Treaty. debt-for-nature swap. conservation easement.
25) All of the following could be considered ecosystem services that may benefit a nation that is forgiving the debt of a developing nation in exchange for the preservation of biodiversity EXCEPT (1pts) air purification. population reduction. food crop pollination. medicinal benefits. water purification. 26) The sixth mass extinction that many ecologists predict we are currently experiencing is different from the previous five mass extinctions in that (1pts) the rate of extinction is much slower. the diversity of organisms is significantly greater. humans are present. there is more habitat now than there was previously. comets have a large influence on the current extinction. 27) Which of following groups of organisms represents the largest number of species listed on the Endangered Species Act? (1pts) Insects Fish Mammals Amphibians Plants