ERIKSON’S LIFESPAN OF DEVELOPMENT
Erikson expanded upon Freud’s five stages of child development into eight stages of life. The following table outlines Erikson’s eight stages of life.
Within these eight stages of life, the individual goes through positive and negative experiences that lead the individual to develop positive or negative attitudes about themselves at that life stage. The individual will experience growth, but he or she needs support from the environment to achieve it. More positive experiences help the individual develop positive attitudes and qualities.
An individual who works through difficulties within each life stage will develop certain virtues or strengths. Erikson believed that an individual could have recurring problems or negative attitudes at different stages in life due to ongoing stress. Positive experiences in childhood can help an individual solve problems later on, in adulthood. Erikson’s theory can help parents realize that children are adaptive individuals who can grow to be independent. They continue to develop psychologically throughout adulthood and they can continue to work through difficulties. Parenting is important for the parent who provides and for the child who experiences it (Brooks, 2013).
ERIKSON’S THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Resolution or “Virtue”
Culmination in Old Age
Infancy (0-1 year)
Trust versus Mistrust
Appreciation of interdependence and relatedness
Early Childhood (1-3 years)
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
Humor, empathy, resilience
Preschool Age (3-6years)
Initiative versus Guilt
Humility, acceptance of the
School Age (6-12 years)
Industry versus Inferiority
Humility, acceptance of the course of one’s life and unfulfilled hopes
Adolescence (12-18 years)
Identity versus Confusion
Sense of complexity of life, merging of sensory, logical and aesthetic perception
Early Adulthood (18-35 Years)
Intimacy versus Isolation
Sense of complexity of relationships, value of tenderness, and loving freely
Middle Adulthood (35-65 years)
Generativity versus Stagnation
Caritas, caring for others, agape, empathy and concern
Old Age (65 years+)
Ego integrity versus Despair
Existential identity, sense of integrity strong enough to withstand physical disintegration
Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory of Development
This theory uses a framework of Processes–Person–Context–Time (PPCT) to describe the interaction between the child’s inner qualities and the environment as he or she develops and grows.
Bronfenbrenner’s framework sought to highlight to parents the influence of forces such as economic factors, work policies, historical events on parenting, and the importance of stability and regularity in a child’s life (Brooks, 2013).