For each of the followinf questions, answer the questions asked about the passage/argument. Identify everything and EXPLAIN your answers. If you find a fallacy in a passage, you must discuss why you think the fallacy exists. For example, if you think a passage contains a biased generalization, do NOT simply say “it is biased because the sample fails to represent the Target.” You must EXPLAIN the way in which, or on what respect, the sample fails to represent the target. Your grade will be based on the extent to which you have written a correct and well explainder response. (these are the teachers instructions, and there are total of “16” questions). I will send the to you numbered in order, and can you please, please send them to me, one at a time as you answer them please)
#1 – as part of his work for NASA, Dr. Murdock was asked to find out what percentage of people in the continental United States saw Haley’s Comet when it was last visible. He randomly selected three major cities: Seattle, Cleveland, and Bosto, and polled 1000 randomly selected people from these cities. He finds that fewer than 5% of people he interviewed saw the comet, so he concludes that fewer than 5% of people in the continental United States saw the comet. Discuss whether Murdock is using a generalization or an analogy, name the sample and the target, and discuss whether there are any fallacies prsent in the argument, (if so, why: if not… why not)!
where do I go to pay?…. nothing is popping up for me, and my timed clock is running?
#2 – in 1935, in order to get newspapers to subscribe to his weekly polls, George Gallup promised he would predict the winner of the 1936 Presidential Electio. He actually guaranteed the newspapers that were subscribing to his poll that if he was wrong, he would refund all their money, and that was part of their bet. Gallup also guaranteed that he would predict percentages more accurately than the leading than the leading poll fo the day, conducted by the Literary Digest magazine. The Literary Digest poll had picked the winner in every Presidential election since 1916. The digest poll was conducted on a vast scale. A staff of several thousand workers stuffed ballots into envelopes, in some years as many as 20 million of them. The ballots were mailed to names polled from automobile registration lists and telephone directories. The assumption ws that the more people you interview, of course you’re going to get closer to the truth. But the method George Gallop relied on was called quota samplin. The idea was to canvas groups of people who were representatives of the electorate. Gallop set out hundreds of interviewers across the country, each of whom was given quotas for different for different types of respondents; so many middle-class urban women, so many lower-class rural men, and so on. Gallup’s team conducted some 3000 interiews, butnowhere near the 10 million polled that year by the Literary Digest. Who is going to correctly predict the winner of the 1936 Presidential election, the Library Digest, or George Gallup? Explain your answer by discussing the methodology of each pollster, and by using the terminology provided in chapter 10.
3 – As Bob is driving on an exit off the freeway, he comes to a stop light and sees a homeless man asking people for spare change. “See, he’s a perfect example of why we shouldn’t be gicing welfare benefits to the homeless,” Bob mutters to his wife. “He’s too lazy to get a job, but he’s healthy enough to beg people for their hard-earned money all day long.” What are the sample and the Target in Bobn’s argument? Ate there any inductive fallacies present in Bob’s reasoning? If so, explain why?. If not , explain why not?
#4 – (Fictional Example) The Democratic National Committee”s website conducted a poll registered registered democrats visiting its website, asking whether the respondents are in favor of increasing gun-control laws. 2000 registered democrats visiting the site responded to the poll. The poll result shows that 85% of them are in favor of gun-contThe group concludes that most people in America are in favor of gun-control laws. For this passage, determine whether the argument is an analogical argument or a generalization (explain your answers), and explain which inductive fallacies, if any, are present in the argument.
#5 – When Haley’s Comet hovered over Jerusalem in 66CE, the historian Josephus prophesied it meant the destruction of the city. Jerusalem fell four years later during a failed uprising against Roman occupiers, thus confirming the power of the comet. Is this argument subject to any casual fallacies (post hoc ergo propter hoc, cum hoc ergo propter hoc, confusing effect with cause, or ignoring an underlying cause)? Explain your answer