Thisdocumentisnotmeanttobeasubstitute foraformallaboratoryreport.TheLabReport Assistantissimplyasummaryoftheexperiment’squestions,diagramsifneeded,anddatatables thatshouldbeaddressedinaformallabreport.Theintentistofacilitatestudents’writingoflab reports by providing this informationin an editable filewhich can be sent to an instructor.
|Data Table 1: PunnettSquare for F1 Cross – Expected GeneticOutcomes|
F1Parent, genes: (student to fillin the blanks)
|F1 Parent, genes:__________(student fillin blank)|
|Data Table 2: Results of F1 Cross|
|Observed Phenotypes of F2Progeny|
|# green plants =||# white plants =||Total # plants|
|Petri Dish 1 >|
|Petri Dish 2 >|
|Data Table 3: Dihybrid Cross in Corn – Results of P Cross|
|P = purple, p = yellow
S = smooth, s = wrinkled
(student to fillin all blanks )
|Generation||Expected Alleles||Expected Alleles|
dominant x recessive
|F1 Progeny >|
|Data Table 3A: PunnettSquare for F1 Dihybrid Cross|
|Expected Genotypic Outcomes
(student to fillin)
|Parent 1 F1– can produce these gametes: (student to fillin)|
Parent2F1 –canproduce these gametes:
genotype and phenotype.Student to fillin.
|Data Table 4: Dihybrid Cross in Corn – Results of F1 Cross in F2 Progeny|
(What they look like – word description)
Genetic Designations possible for this Phenotype
Number of this Phenotype Total Counted:
100 (Observed Number)
|e.g., Yellow, wrinkled||
|* Actual Allelic Frequency (Observed Ratio)
= Number of this PhenotypeTotal Counted ¸ 100 kernels total counted
Data Table 5: Χ2Goodness of Fit Test for F Phenotypic Results from F Corn Cross
of F2Progeny from Table 4
|Observed Number from Table 4||Observed Ratio from Table 4||Expected Ratio from Table 4||
* Expected Number, calculated
** [Observed No. – Exp. No.]2
÷ Expected No.
|e.g., Yellow, wrinkled|
Σ Sum of column =
c2,Chi-square value ***
* Expected Number, calculated
= Σ Sum of Observed Number x Expected Ratiofor that phenotype
** = (Observed number – Expected number, calculated) square
÷ Expected Number, calculated
squared ÷ Expected Number, calculated
|Data Table 6: Summarizationof c2 Good Fit Results for F Corn Cross
|c2 value from Table 5 =|
|Value at 3 Degrees of Freedom that is closest to c2
|What is the Fit Probability at the top of the column in which the value was found?|
|What is the % of probability that the observed results match the expected results?
(MultiplyFit Probability by 100)
Reading at the top of the Table, this Fit Probability indicates that the expected results hypothesis is a
|Good Fit Poor Fit|
Circle the correct choice above
Exercise 1: F1 Hybrid Cross
A. Expectedphenotypicratioofgreentowhiteprogeny: CalculationofExpectedRatio
(Frequency) = = Total Number of (Color) Seedlings ÷ Total of All Seedlings.
B. If 320 F2offspringresulted from this F1cross, how many would be green?
A. Did the results support or refute the hypothesis? Explain.
B. How similar are the observed to the expected results from the PunnettSquare?
C. If the results are not similar, how might the differencebe explained?
D. WillamonohybridF1crossincornyieldthesameratioofexpectedphenotypeinprogenyas for the tobacco seedlings? Why or why not?
E. Ifavailable,compareyourF2seedlingdatatothoseofyourclassmates.Aretheoutcomeratios the same? Why might using a larger number of seedlings to determine this outcome be wise?
Exercise 2: Dihybrid GeneticCrosses
1. Basedonwhatyoucanconcludeaboutitsgeneticmakeupwhentoldthatthecornplant parentcross(P)picturedinFigure2isbetweenacompletelydominantplantandacompletely recessive plant,
a. Constructandrecordahypothesisaboutwhatthegeneticmakeupandthefrequencies oftheallelesfortheF1 progenyplantsinthedihybridcrossofcornwillbe.Recordyour hypothesis here:
b. IftheseF1 progenyaremated,whatwillbetheresultingallelicfrequencyfortheF2
progeny? Record this hypothesis here:
A. Whatarethetwohypothesesthatyoumadeabouttheallelicfrequenciesofprogenyproduced by the crosses:
P x P?
B. Based on what you know about phenotypes and Figure 2, for the P generation, what is the corn plant genotype on each cob containing the P corn kernels? One is completely dominant, so its genotype is
One is completely recessive, so its genotype is .
C. WoulditmakeadifferenceintheoutcomeofthiscrossifthegenotypeofoneparentisPPss and the other is ppSS?
D. FromthephenotypeofthekernelsoneachPgeneration cobwhatwouldthepredicted genotype of any F1plant be?
F1cross resultingin the F2generationin a dihybrid corn cross.
F. IfaF2corncobresultingfromthisF1crosscontained563seeds,howmanyoftheseedswould you expect to look like the F1parent?
A. How well do the predicted results match the actual results in Table 4?
B. BasedonthePunnettSquarepredictions,canastatementbemadeastowhetheryour hypotheses are supported or rejected? Which and why?
C. DihybridF1 crossesresultinapredictableF2 progenyphenotypicfrequencythatholdstrue universally. Based on the Expected outcome, what is it?
D. If your results are not as expected why might there be differences?
E. Whatapplicationsmightthistypeofgeneticinvestigationhave?Howmighttheinformation be applied medically?