A. Learn how electrophoresis works and answer these questions:
• On what basis is electrophoresis able to separate molecules? What are the lengths of the three DNA bands that you produce in this lab?
B. Electrophoresis. Select the pBR322 plasmid (a circular piece of DNA used as a cloning vector) to analyze (menu in upper left hand corner of the simulator). You will then see a diagram of the circular plasmid DNA along with the points along the length of the plasmid where the various restriction enzymes (EcoR I, Ple I, Hinc II, and Bgl I) will cut the DNA. For instance notice that the enzyme EcoR 1 only cuts the plasmid at one location at the top of the diagram, whereas the other enzymes cut the plasmid at other places. To analyzes the DNA we cut it up with different enzymes and slowly piece together an understanding of the entire sequence.
• Load each lane as follows: lane 1 with Bgl 1; lane 2 with EcoR 1; lane 3 with Hinc II; lane 4 with Ple I; lane 5 with predetermined molecular weight markers.
• Run the gel and describe and explain the number of bands in lanes 2 and 4.
C. Human blood types and the immune system: Emergency Transfusion!
You can skip the video introduction, but will probably want to read the guide before you attempt the emergency simulation. Repeat the simulation until you can get hired on by the virtual hospital staff. Use your mouse to: 1. Take a blood sample from the patient. 2. Place the blood sample in the antibody solutions. 3. Hang the correct blood transfusion bags, so as to start a blood transfusion.
• Identify the different blood types, the antibodies associated with each, and the types of blood that each type can receive and donate too.