Hacking and Cybersecurity
The improvement or the growth of the internet has benefited the modern days and
brought excellent and reliable things in the form of email, e-commerce, cloud computing
such as the NASA in the United States, applications, data sharing, and vast stores
involving reference materials. Internet has become a tool in computer hacks, network
hacks, backdoors, mobile breaches, and many other criminal tools using a weak link.
Cybercrime has been the biggest problem carried out by several experts in computers and
is rapidly increasing day by day. For example, a person may hack a site in banks or any
other promoting institution and steal all funds that are manageable by the institutions
(Wolf and Robert 34). Cybercrime is involved in taking of valuable data and hacking
bank accounts. We have ever heard of a bank becoming a broke institution due to that
these hacks and getting away with all the money; we call them computer experts. It is
also responsible for disrupting networks among organizations. The government has tried
to enhance preventive measures on this. Therefore, this paper will discuss the type of
hackers that are regarded as computing experts. Some networks have been brought up in
today's times and are mostly used by many people. Such systems are Wi-Fi networks or
wireless local area networks and they are usually installed in organizations such as hotels,
schools, offices, among others for fast networking. However, it also leads to some threats
such as the hack of Wi-Fi networks, stealing passwords from the organizations, and even
hack of information from the users.
Cybersecurity majors on types of networks protecting them from these hackers.
The types of security are of different types. Protection gives a piece of build information
in which undetected theft or disruption of information is not tolerated. It makes people
more secure and ready with weapon tools to fight or bear attacks and viruses that appear
in some way. Cybersecurity can be a tool process, activity, or technology that can protect
an individual from viruses or malware and computer hackers (Ronquillo et al. 19). It
deals mainly with computer security. A hardware security deals with devices that protect
a networking system while software security deals with tools that provide an excellent
function state despite an attack on a system. There are elements involved in cybersecurity
which includes application security, cloud system security, database security, network
security, mobile security, among others (Wolf and Robert 39). The details are involved in
some security services such as availability, integrity, access control, confidentiality,
authentication, and authorization.
Cybersecurity is involved in computer security to ensure that the systems of
computers are protected from thefts, viruses, and damages that tend to appear.
Cybercrime is the damaging target of machines and disrupting of information from the
internet. It includes computer fraud, identity thefts from hackers, credit attacks such as
the hacking of credit institutions based on network services, sharing of files and
information, laundering of money, and many more others. Cybercrime is multiplying in
areas such as the ATM attacks by hackers who hack the passwords on people ATMs and
steal money, sending of emails that are fraud work done by hackers who have made a go
through in computer and many others. Hacking is a professional working experience with
computers. (Buchanan n.p) It is the rapid engineering of machines and creating new
programs that make code efficient. There are divided into ethical hacking and unethical
hacking. Ethical hacking is when hackers decide to find weaknesses on other peoples’
computers. This is a type of hacking in which practices on breaking into computers
without malicious content and not harming the user’s computer (Smith 314). On the other
hand, unethical hacking involves cracking of computer activities without the use of
technology. Breaking is the breaking of computer activities. Therefore, a cracker can
come from the word breaking. A cracker is a person who uses proficient skills in a
computer system in the wrong way.
Looking at computer security, this is the protection of systems of computers and
the data they manage by the computer users. Computer security enables people to do
research, protecting information on which is managed by a user, and supporting business
processes. Cyber incidents have increased rapidly from the year 2011 to the year 2015.
Recently, the national institute of standards and technology have come up with guidelines
on cyber-attacks and recommend on change towards its future monitoring (Buchanan 90).
Cyber incidents have done businesses to follow mechanisms such as viruses, data
breaches, and worms from past the past years. It has been a problematic scenario basing
on law enforcement to cope with these mechanisms.
Background of Cybersecurity
The first computer worm was created by Robert Morris in the late 1980s to the
early 1990s. The virus was spread and made the internet go down. This Robert worm
incident led to the formation of specific computer industries such as the computer
emergency response teams. In the early 1990s, there was the first virus known as Melissa
virus. It affected millions of computers. It also blocked email computer systems. The
upcoming of these viruses made the antivirus industry come to diminish the threats. The
credit card attack occurred in the year 2005 and the year 2007. For the target breach,
hackers used a system of POS to take away the credit card numbers (Smith n.p). The
scheme caused a massive breach of data for the customers and organizations. We should
make organizations engage in working to control these breaches on data and these
computer attacks. In this, there is a need for cybersecurity.
Hackers are individuals who have technical skills in managing computer systems
and computer networks. He or she uses computer skills on how to access networks and
systems and do it to an offensive matter (Sawyer and Peter 597). He or she can steal all
personal data, bank accounts, ATM hacking, and any crime on computer services.
Therefore, he or she conducts a cybercrime.
The advantages of ethical hacking are some of the ways that can help one in the
protection of his or her computer systems. Ethical hacking prevents theft. It fights against
attacks such as frauds. It impedes on cyber terrorism thus making hackers from access
gaining. Prevents unauthorized information from getting it access to another computer
system. Government bodies have helped with the security of computer systems. The
government roles in protecting the operations have increased. It also provides a piece of
clear information on people understanding security on computer systems. It increases
knowledge of people in understanding security concerns. Finally, ethical hacking can
help in protecting financial and banking marketing.
However, ethical hacking also leads to some failures and faults. Include data
breach, which leads to harm to personal information. Cyber contraband which involves
threatening family lives for money. Some malicious activities involve the harmful
purposes that the hackers make. These activities are such as the ATM hacking, hacking of
bank accounts, and other destructive purposes that hackers tend to work on. The hiring of
hackers can be expensive because of their technical skills and specialized work that they
make on areas of computer techniques. These hackers also cannot be trusted in areas of
working. This is because they can tend to perceive the harmful stealing of funds in
institutions. It is a frustrating feeling when someone hacks your computer system
(Sawyer and Peter 599). This takes a lot of time to retrieve it and is time-consuming.
Finally, ethical hacking can be used for getting unauthorized information from people's
systems. These hackers can be classified as white hat hackers, black hat hackers, and the
grey hat hackers. The white hackers are the excellent hackers who have a good intention
in working for companies. There are authorized with good thinking goal. They are also
named as the IT technicians in which companies use them to test their security and make
an improvement over it. They are used for the good willing intentions for making
protection durable in the companies they serve. For the black hat hackers, this is the type
of hackers whose aim is for money. They are known as crackers in that they break
computer security and steal information from companies or banks.
In some cases, they just do it for enjoyment and don’t harm the institution. Grey
hat hackers are multitalented for both the white and black hackers. For this type of
hackers, they crack the security of an organization and then tell them the loopholes of the
security for money. They break the security to reveal themselves as experts in the
systems. Other minor types of hackers include hacktivists, cyber terrorists, state-
sponsored hackers, script kiddies, and suicide hackers.
Stages of Hacking
Hacking is involved in five stages. Starting with step one, which is surveillance,
this is where a cracker or a hacker gets information about the target source before he or
she makes an attack. The target may be based on the organization's employees, network
services, computer operations, computer systems, and clients (Kshetri and Jeffrey 91).
There are two types: passive reconnaissance and active surveillance. The passive involves
getting sensitive information without necessarily knowing the target while the dynamic
consists of interacting directly with the destination to which he or she aims at. The second
stage is scanning. This is where the cracker scans the targeted network to get a piece of
clear information. Scanning involves some tools such as network mappers, threat
scanners, port scanners, and many more others. They come up with a piece of sensitive
information to which will help them start their attack (Buchanan n.p). The third stage is
gaining access. This is where the cracker gets the access point on the victim’s network.
He or she can have access to the application, operating system, and network levels. They
gain clear access to control and manage computer systems. The fourth stage is the zoom
system. This stage is for keeping access and trying to retain ownership of the computer
system. This stage is where the cracker or the hacker protects the system from other
hackers to access it. They make sure that the system is in their control for other future
threats. The last stage, which is the fifth stage, is evidence of removal. In this stage,
hackers get to know their activities and get rid of traces from the victim system. He or she
deletes proof from the victim’s machine system that may lead to cybercrime without even
getting noticed. This is done to avoid the risk of being caught.
Businesses are attacked many times and lose a lot of money because of cyber-
attacks such as hacking. This has affected many companies and governments. One of the
problems is that it leads to financial losses. In the year 2011, a company lost 170 million
dollars because of the hacking of its system. Companies have lost a lot of money on
piracy. The amount lost due to hacking can be challenging to get it back. However, it can
also be challenging to get the cracker. In the loss of information, hacking brings a loss of
data since files retrieved get changed or removed from systems. There is also a decrease
in personal privacy. When a cracker accesses your computer system, he or she can go
through everything in your order (Kshetri and Jeffrey 99). Most of our information basing
our intimate, financial, and professional lives is kept online since here, and there is the
security of data. A cracker or a hacker can access all your online accounts and can
destroy you in the matter of a short duration of time. He or she displays your personal
life, thus decreases your privacy status. Another problem is a damaged reputation.
Reputation causes a colossal failure of a company. For example, a bank that is hacked
several times experience a loss of clients. This is because the clients don’t trust the bank
again and don’t put their money there back. Over time, these business institutions
experience a guaranteed drop from their clients because of destroyed reputations.
In the fast growth of the internet and the usage of technology such as mobile,
cybersecurity has raised rapidly. Recently, attackers are learning and improving their
technical skills in getting access to data for their purpose. It is, therefore, crucial for
humans and institutions to get aware of these risks and how to avoid them. The
cybersecurity faces some challenges—a problem of the data breach. Many organizations
store a large amount of information on the cloud, which becomes simple for the attackers
to manage unauthorized data. Some organizations have a broken authentication in which
makes it easier for hackers to access the weak passwords simply (Ronquillo et al. 19). On
vulnerable APIs and interfaces, there are exposed systems in an open internet that are
easily accessible by hackers. On organization vulnerabilities, sharing of databases,
memory, and resources with one another has enhanced a new attack problem. In account
hijacking, since the data is put on cloud storage, crackers easily spy on them and easily
modify the information and get the accounts. Lastly, shared technology results in shared
risks. Providers of cloud service share technology, and when a threat comes up, it affects
The government has prevented against cybercrimes in the following ways: have
promoted technology that has been related to cybersecurity, involved in the protection of
information infrastructure, getting good access of the e-governance by the usage of
critical global infrastructure, bringing of mechanisms such as the national computer
emergency response team for security vulnerabilities and developing of cyber-secure
together with security policies to get access of sensitive information. In preventing users
against cybercrimes, you need to do the following. Keeping your mobile phones up-to-
date, shop from trusted sites, don’t open the email in sources that you don’t know, use
strong passwords for your social accounts, keep safe from network hijacking, use privacy
settings on your status profile and be able to access your threats in which will secure data
of your business.
Hacking tricks in an operating system include hacking in window security,
hacking of an android phone, and the hacking wireless network (Wi-Fi). In my case, we
will look at the android hacking. The usage of this tool lies in that it is used for promoting
payloads in some particular formats. Then we can put these formats of payloads by the
usage of specific modules. For joining of MSF, payload and MSF encode in one tool is
responsible for MSF venom. By doing this, it equalizes the command lines. The
combining pairs made are used for setting options on the storage of data for the payload.
It works the same as the MSF payload, and it emerges anywhere on the line of command.
Trends in Cybersecurity
On the trends of cybersecurity, organizations have adopted cloud technology in
which information is in open source. There will be a rapid increase in the number of
cyber crackers on open-source threats. Software institutions have a group of members
who are ensuring the safety of their systems. People should identify the risks and dangers
of basing on their computer systems. Using this type of software, many organizations
have saved money and significantly influenced by better needs (Ronquillo et al. n.p). In
recent years, there are some cybersecurity trends that people need to be aware of them.
One is careful patching and application testing improvements. Most browsing of internet
network is done by our mobile phones. Our mobile applications are the best source for
attackers or hackers. Be aware of the measures to take to protect your smartphones. Look
at the risks and threats that will come along your system and try to avoid them. The other
recent trend is identifying the ransomware and dealing with it. Ransomware is an
enormous problem that is faced by many institutions begging with the past years. This is
a type of software that steals your personal information involving writings, videos, and
pictures. On creating this software, attackers will look upon operating systems such as
Android platforms. In the conclusion of the software, use a VPN connection that will help
your information to be maintained and not singled out. The VPN connection will be a
possible way that will not allow people to access your data.
Another trend in cybersecurity will be smart yet gullible. With quick opportunities
and capabilities of connecting many devices on the internet network, a rapid increase of
threats becomes a problem also. This is because the hackers will maliciously want to
access your data from your system. To curb this error, be responsible and keen to install
your devices in a well-arranged manner giving strong passwords, usernames, and
personalized settings. Another trend is based on the general data protection regulation. In
this, companies need to put on safety measures to protect their data from being accessed
by attackers. In trends on cybersecurity, there is the consideration of serverless apps and
the protection of fewer devices. Recently, some apps don’t need a server such as
WhatsApp. They direct connections with encryption, and this minimizes the application
cost maintenance and also provide benefits. However, this is very open to any form of
attack. AL hackers are also a trend in cybersecurity. As technology proliferates, a lot of
work is performed by AL (Ronquillo et al. n.p). In the past years, there were there was an
increase in AL attacks. In conclusion, we see that the machine is managed by hackers to
note and track threats in systems.
Hacking and cybersecurity are essential in technology improvement today. Many
companies are hiring ethical hackers because of their security concerns within the area of
the organization. Even the starting institutions are hiring ethical hackers and paying them
a reasonable sum of money for their future benefit. Hackers are exceeding skilled
technical computer experts. The more build-up and advanced software tools managed by
ethical hackers will lead to an improvement in technology. These hackers are
demandingly needed in the IT sector organization. The hacking activities techniques
facilitate in preventing leakage of your data, helps in detecting the risks, and minimizes
reputation losses. Finally, for the prevention of hacking, you can use tools such as
patches, antivirus, honeynet, and many more others. Hacking and cybersecurity play a
role in improving and developing technology in our coming days. A nation built of
technology tends to be a nation of a successfulness in modern days.
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