Historians and political scientists
are reluctant to generalize; look for generalizations
look for generalizations; are reluctant to generalize
are more likely to look for comparisons; focus on differences
tend to focus on nature-based explanations; focus on nurture-based explanations
Question 2. 2.(TCO 1) Which are both true for most political scientists? (Points : 2)
They think practically and seek accuracy
They seek popularity and are skeptical of power
They offer single causes and think abstractly
They are skeptical of power and offer long-term consequences
The ruling laid precedent for judicial review.
The ruling stated that the president is subject to the court’s decisions.
The ruling decreed that current administrations must honor the appointments of previous administrations.
The ruling claimed that federal taxes could not be levied on the states.
The president and the Senate
The Senate and the House
The president and Speaker of the House
The Senate and the Secretary of State
Many feared that such a power would give the court a double check and compromise its neutrality
Some thought that such power would create untrustworthy judges.
The founders argued that judicial review would lead to undue indictments by the court.
Drafters of the Constitution feared that few laws would ever be set in stone.
Judges should intervene frequently, interpreting the law according to their expertise and ensuring a fair trial
Judges should act as umpires, passively watching the legal drama and ruling only on disputed points of procedure.
Judges should not intervene unless attorneys object, at which point they may either overrule or sustain the objection.
Judges should take an active role, questioning witnesses, eliciting evidence, and commenting on procedure.
The Warren Court was generally considered conservative, but subsequent courts were seen as more liberal.
Subsequent courts were conservative, but not nearly as conservative as the Warren Court.
Succeeding Courts failed to represent the conservative agenda of the Warren Court.
While the Warren Court was rather progressive, subsequent courts were viewed as conservative.
Separation of powers is rarely clear-cut.
Separation of powers is rare among industrialized nations.
Separation of powers is absolute.
Separation of powers grants obtuse levels of power to the executive branch.
members of Parliament and the prime minister
members of Parliament and the ministerial cabinet
members of Parliament only
the prime minister only
Question 17. 17.(TCO 5) Because of the separation of powers inherent in a presidential system, some scholars think that executive-legislative _____ is common in systems like that used in the United States. (Points : 2)
chief of government
head of state
Party chiefs run as candidates for prime minister.
Citizens vote directly for the each new prime minister.
Citizens vote for a party member with the knowledge that the next prime minister will be the head of the largest party.
The prime minister is appointed for a 4-year term and can be reappointed one time
Those who have experience winning elections and serving on a parliamentary committee
Newcomers who can bring in a fresh perspective to the ministry
Individuals who possess a great knowledge of the specific ministry’s area
Those who have political experience regardless of whether or not they have been elected in the past
Conservatives use the term to try to get back to the pure market system advocated by Adam Smith.
Conservatives understand the term within the context of Machiavelli’s The Prince
Conservatives veer toward John Stuart Mill’s usage, which advocated utilitarianism
Conservatives take a neo-utilitarian approach, hoping to benefit the weakest members of society
social safety nets
Medicare anticipates rising costs due to changing proportions of people over 65.
Medicaid expects rising costs due to looming financial busts.
Medicare plans to keep spending down by raising the eligibility age to 69.
Medicaid hopes to beat rising costs by adjusting the poverty level.
Many would be left without enough to support them.
Caps to these programs would undermine the welfare state.
It can cost them votes.
Both are primary social safety nets.
Americans believe the government is too small, and Canadians feel that government intrudes on individual privacy.
As citizens of similar nations located in North America, both Americans and Canadians feel that government is too large.
Americans and Canadians generally agree that government should be larger, funding welfare programs such as Medicaid and food stamps
Many Americans believe government is too large, and Canadians recognize that government has a pivotal role to play and accept higher taxes
too big to fail
destined for profit
Question 11. 11.(TCO 9) Rarely the work of small bands and conspirators alone, _____ are usually the result of system collapse, which permits small but well-organized groups (often military) to take over. (Points : 2)
the erosion of legitimacy
acts of genocide
Jealousy is aroused.
Politicians pay more attention to poverty.
The very poor revolt.
Economists become confused.
When people move in and out of poverty, they have no hope for the future, and so see nothing to lose in rebelling.
When things improve for the wealthy, they start imagining an even better future. No longer content with their already luxurious lot, they want improvement faster than even a growing economy can deliver.
When things improve for the poor, they realize just how bad they’ve had it and their anger is unleashed.
When things improve for the poor, people start imagining a better future. No longer content with their lot, they want improvement faster than even a growing economy can deliver.
sharing intelligence with nongovernmental militias
targeting specific groups for violence
because it alone ended with democratic institutions.
because it became an example for other nations.
because it managed to route what was then the great world power.
because it alone ended with a new foundation of liberty instead of the tyranny that came after other revolutions
The low level of education in developing nations
The enormous economic mismanagement in industrialized nations
The extreme violence utilized by industrialized nations against developing nations
The massive corruption now found in developing lands
(TCO 2) Identify and discuss the key differences between the presidential and parliamentary systems of government. Your answer should include a comparison of electoral processes which brings a party to power, how the executive and his/her cabinet are selected and the checks and balances the legislative branch uses in each system to control the executive branch
2. (TCO 8) Traditionally, Political Parties perform six functions in the political process. Identify and explain any four of them. Then identify and explain one way interest groups and political parties differ.
In essay form explain how entitlements are different from welfare. Then explain what constitutes a welfare payment and how much welfare accounts for in overall federal spending. Finally, how has Tax Expenditures enabled the US to avoid being labeled a European Welfare State?
4. (TCO 3) Examine the Supreme Court. Explain how its members are selected, what consideration if any is given to race, gender or ideology in the selection process, what cases the court predominantly hears, and the difference between judicial activism and judicial restraint.