Ethical Issues of Human Intelligence in Non-Human Primates
A genomic data of human lineage-specific sequences (HLS) shows a strong interest in
investigating the functional effects of non-human primates called the apes. The transgenic
apes are the non-human evolutionary primates that fully express the HLS sequence because
they are represented in the Homo sapiens and therefore have harm from this transgenic
research. The disadvantages justify regulatory barriers between the apes and all human
primates, according to the transgenic study. The existence of the HLS sequence on the
chimpanzee genome in the year 2005 confirmed what Charles Darwin and Huxley posited
that humans shared a common thing with the great African apes. However, the primate
comparative genomics gives insights into what makes Homo sapiens members different from
their evolutionary through the genetic factors. This includes the skin phonotypes, behavior
and anatomy of the primate, the immune and reproduction system, cognition, language, and
other modes of physiology. The most recommendable strategy to investigate the human-
specific sequences is in transgenic non-human primates. In the transgenic research, the
species chosen should have the same genetic factors as Homo sapiens. This is to express the
functions in humans through the HLS sequence. Through the genetic studies of apes and their
origin, humans have become attractive to the transgenic studies of the human lineage
sequence. The scientific insights held by this approach are to be outweighed by the ethical
concern basing the origin of the human-like apes. Therefore, apes are considered to produce
human-like phenotypes on the harm from the transgenic research.
Human Lineage Sequence
In this, there is a sequence draft genome of the rhesus macaque and the chimpanzee.
The draft genome sequences have provided the lineage of specific genomic changes among
ETHICAL ISSUES OF HUMAN INTELLIGENCE 3
non-human primates and humans. The genomic evolutionary changes have not covered a
wide range of human lineage sequences. This is because of genes affected, which include
those that have changed at a series, specifically humans, those that show a copy number of
HLS maximizing or minimizing and those that alter brain expression of chimpanzees and
people. These genomic changes will help to enhance the interest of using transgenic animals
as the ways of learning the gene function on HLS.
Transgenic Research using Non-Human Primates
For unique genes, the transgenic research of using non-human primates could be
finished with new techniques either from the exchange of HLS sequence on species or
maximizing of HLS sequence on the host genome. Further advances will be needed to learn
the consequences of differences in expression by maximizing number copied or even
modifying regions that are regulatory of gene remains which are technically a problem thus
The transgenic way of research on the HLS sequence is that it gives information ion
on the scientific questions of what makes the members homo sapiens not the same as the
nearest evolutionary cousins. It has also produced clinical benefits on that the HLS gene
variants have been implicated with human diseases. This is evident that the evolutionary
mechanisms that have genomic changes in human lineage give human condition as a by-
product. This is possible for the variants that impact the human phenotype to produce
scientific insights into disorders and another relevant phenotype hard to study. This should
also include neurodegenerative disorders, cognitive diseases, social behavior disorders, and
even speech articulation systems. It is appropriate to look at the ethical points or issues
related to non-human primates’ transgenic research. Currently. Some countries could approve
the use of this research involving all the non-human primates. Most studies on apes are
ETHICAL ISSUES OF HUMAN INTELLIGENCE 4
banned in some countries such as Sweden, the UK, New Zealand, and some other countries.
However, monkeys used for research in the UK, the regulations need a license on human
researcher or project as well as the additional oversights. The animal guidelines share
commitments as the three Rs, namely reduction, refinement, and replacements. Ethical
concerns or issues of using transgenic non-human primates for learning what makes us
Predictive Diagnostic Uncertainty
Social lineage sequence gene transfer could have a specific impact that has less or
more effect on a phenotype which is relevant to the social function. Most genes appear to
have multiple tasks that are unrelated to humans. This transfer can seem to have a wide range
of unexpected impacts. An example of this is the nature of most genes will make an effect of
a transgenic intervention hard to interpret until offsprings are produced. The uncertainty
maximizes the danger of having an unpredictable effect on transgenic non-human primates.
Moreover, when the transfer of the HLS gene finishes its intended aim of delivering change
in the NHP phenotype, this increases another set of ethical issue.
Ethical Obligations on Non-Human Primates in Transgenic Research
There is a growing literature on the ethical concerns in the making and the research on
transgenic animals. Some scientists try to join the unique issues of transgenic findings in
terms of crossing species boundaries. In contrast, others turn to animal integrity to focus on
the effects of transgenic manipulations on the animal themselves. This approach can be
sharpened by basing on the physical challenges of any transgenic apes that express
humanized phenotypes would tend to face (LU, 2009). In the case of apes, they share many
capacities with humans, such as the capacity for communication, revenge, social
maintenance, empathy and attachment, social rules, giving, and trading. On this, a Chinese
ETHICAL ISSUES OF HUMAN INTELLIGENCE 5
scientist concluded that apes are so close to humans. Such capabilities from apes could lead
to harm to these animals. If these human expressions of human lineage sequence only catered
to destroy the characteristics that the apes share with humans, then the apes are harmed. This
conclusion supports more significant regulatory barriers against any HLS sequence research
on apes in terms of reviews and safeguards.
There is an evolutionary spectrum between the great apes and the monkeys. On the
Chinese scientists, they experimented with the microcephalin gene to a monkey by exposing
the monkey embryos to a virus that carried the human version of microcephalin. They
generated eleven monkeys on experiments on the battery of brain measurements, and about
five of them survived (Pfaff, 2018). Each of them was holding nine copies of human brain
genes. The evolutionary ways between the monkeys and people are excellent enough to show
that a simple human lineage sequence insertion in a monkey genome will give a human-like
phenotype or that the phenotypes would be challenging for the monkeys than those of apes.
Because of the distance in evolution between monkeys and humans compared to apes and
humans, more genetic changes would be needed in a monkey to elicit a human-like
phonotype than needed for apes if they were used as the host species. This is because apes are
quickly humanized, and their traits are human-like phenotypes; thus, they are a higher chance
of using apes as HLS host species. However, the apes would be at a greater danger of
exploitation. More cognitive and social capabilities primates possess the weightier humans’
obligations to become. For purposes in regulations, the line between the monkeys and the
great apes is clean. This minimized danger of harm on human-like phenotypes states that the
transgenic human lineage sequence findings with monkeys may not always be objected
ethically. However, it could be managed on a case basis by an organizational use of
committees together with animal care.
ETHICAL ISSUES OF HUMAN INTELLIGENCE 6
Basing on the evolutionary proximity of genetic factors, the transgenic apes have the
highest potential on the human lineage sequence because they are expressed in Homo sapiens
and also experience harm from transgenic research. This is because humanized apes would be
likely to exhibit some traits that are most human-like, engaging them at more severe danger
of exploitation. The ethical issues or concerns brought by scientific generations and the use of
transgenic apes as hosts to learn on the human lineage sequence consider this research
unacceptable, giving barriers that are regulated between the apes and monkeys. In
recommendation on the case of monkeys, the use of them in the case by chance basis should
be examined by animal review boards with exceptional ways paid on the concerns of the
three Rs in the primate search. For the ethical principles of these three Rs, they hold
relevance to non-human primates on scientific research. However, human lineage research is
also having ethical questions about how transgenic research might be used, and the harms on
non-human primates are avoided. We can also see the human intelligence experimented by
the Chinese scientists on the case of putting human brain genes in monkeys. The transgenic
research on non-human primates poses a lot of issues on ethics for learning what makes us
humans. The ethical questions should have the further analysis done.
ETHICAL ISSUES OF HUMAN INTELLIGENCE 7
Book, A. J., & Grace, E. S. (2006). Biotechnology unzipped: Promises and realities, revised
second edition. Joseph Henry Press.
Herzog, R. W., & Zolotukhin, S. (2010). A guide to human gene therapy. World Scientific.
LU, X. (2009). undefined. Academic Press.
Pfaff, D. (2018). How brain arousal mechanisms work: Paths toward consciousness.
Cambridge University Press.