importance of communication
1. Which of the following statements about the importance of communication is true?
a. Many of the basic management processes cannot be performed without effective communication.
b. Oral communication is the most important skill for college graduates who are entering the work force.
c. Poor communication skill is the single most important reason that people do not advance in their careers.
d. Communication is especially important for top managers.
e. All of these statements about the importance of communication are true.
Which of the following statements about what makes a successful leader is true?
a. Successful leaders have the same traits that nonleaders have.
b. Successful leaders have drive, which is defined as the ability to attract and retain the best employees.
c. Successful leaders are confident about their ability to make long-term strategic decisions even if the decisions seem risky to others.
d. Successful leaders believe in individual reciprocity.
e. None of these statements about what makes a successful leader is true.
Conscientiousness is ____.
a. the degree to which someone is organized, hardworking, responsible, and achievement-oriented
b. the degree to which someone is curious
c. the degree to which someone is active and gregarious
d. the degree to which someone is cooperative, flexible, good-natured, tolerant, and trusting
e. defined by none of these
Of all types of departmentalization, ____ departmentalization requires the highest level of management skill for successful implementation.
As a class project, Senora is working with other classmates to create a company that would market NASCAR memorabilia. Senora’s teacher has instructed her to use the traditional approach to create the organization’s structure. What should Senora do?
a. create a virtual organization
b. create an organizational structure with vertical and horizontal configurations
c. use an organizational process to create a matrix design
d. create a matrix structure that will adhere to the unity of command principle
e. use the organizational structure to control creativity
Marketers often appeal to consumers’ needs as defined by Maslow’s hierarchy. Schlage, a lock manufacturer, shows how much protection its locks provide. Clorox developed several types of wipes to eliminate concerns about infectious germs. Both marketers are appealing to which need as defined by Maslow?
b. physiological needs
The term ____ refers to the degree to which someone is cooperative, polite, flexible, forgiving, good natured, tolerant, and trusting.
b. emotional stability
e. locus of control
____ is a technique of assuming half the responsibility for successful communication by actively giving the speaker nonjudgmental feedback that shows you’ve accurately heard what he or she said.
a. Active listening
c. Synergistic communication
d. Dyadic communication
e. Empathetic listening
Two of the most important results of a job analysis are ____.
a. recruiting guidelines and selection boundaries
b. employee-needs assessment and job mapping
c. job descriptions and job specifications
d. rater training and selection validation
e. employee-needs assessment and performance appraisal evaluation
Hot Topic is a fast-growing clothing chain targeted to the alternative teen demographic. Hot Topic’s CEO is Betsy McLaughlin, who relies on her employees to locate new trends. McLaughlin almost daily consults with her employees for suggestions on what the stores should carry. After attending an Insane Clown Posse concert, an employee suggested that the stores should carry Faygo soda (the kind the band sprays on audience members during a concert). The employee’s suggestion was an example of ____ communication.
The ____ states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they are offered attractive rewards.
a. equity theory
b. theory of motivational instrumentality
c. expectancy theory
d. goal-setting theory
e. reinforcement theory
When Billy Ingram founded White Castle, much of the public thought that hamburgers were made from rotten beef and not fit for human consumption. Ingram ground fresh beef in front of customers to prove it was safe and was the first to successfully sell hamburgers to the middle class. Today Ingram is credited as the founder of the fast-food industry. Understanding that Midwesterners wanted clean, convenient food when they were away from home was the information Ingram used to ____.
a. create a tactical advantage
b. create a first-mover advantage
c. sustain a competitive advantage
d. acquire a source of perceived knowledge
e. pioneer sales in the consumer food industry
Excessive speed is a major cause of road crashes in Australia. The Australian government is thinking of using cameras to catch speeders, but it only has access to a limited number of cameras, and there are many areas where speeding is a problem. Government officials plan to put cameras at various locations for four weeks and give everyone who gets caught speeding during that period a substantial fine. According to reinforcement theory, Australian officials are using ____ to control speeding.
a. positive reinforcement
b. negative reinforcement
d. expectancy modification
e. avoidance learning
Pages listing all of the felony crimes perpetrated in New York during the last decade would be an example of ____.
a. a resource allocation table
b. traditional knowledge
c. raw data
d. perceived knowledge
____ is the process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments.
a. Participative communication
c. Passive listening
e. Active hearing
Mike is a big fan of all kinds of sports. As he walked past the snack room bulletin board, he was excited to notice that the company was sponsoring a softball team. Non-athletic Kenneth typically walks by the same bulletin board at least three times every day and has yet to see the softball notice. The fact that one saw the notice and the other did not is due to ____.
a. faulty closure
b. defensive biases
c. selective retention
d. selective perception
____ control is a method of gathering information about performance deficiencies as they occur.
____ control is top-down control in which managers try to influence employee behavior by rewarding or punishing employees for compliance or noncompliance with organizational policies, rules, and procedures.
Noise can occur when ____.
a. the sender isn’t sure of what message to communicate
b. the receiver doesn’t have the time to understand the message
c. the message is not decoded properly
d. the message is not encoded properly
e. any of these occur
Which of the following is an example of an intrinsic reward?
a. a bonus
b. a contest prize
c. a sense of achievement
d. a trophy
e. all of these
A group in Great Britain has been established to improve the employment, retention, and promotion prospects of black and other ethnic minorities as well as women in the Fire and Rescue Service, which at present has a largely white, male demographic. By the ____ stage of team development, the group members will have resolved petty differences, developed friendships, and established strong group cohesiveness.
____ involves assigning direct authority and responsibility to a subordinate to complete tasks for which the manager is normally responsible.
a. Staff functionality
b. Delegation of authority
d. A job description
e. An organization chart
In the traditional control systems used at most companies, ____ measures are used to assess performance.
Users of GM Master Cards earn money toward the purchase of a new General Motors car or truck every time they use this credit card to make purchases. The rebate increases the more times the credit card is used. GM is using ____.
b. positive reinforcement
c. negative reinforcement
Which of the following statements about 360-degree feedback is true?
a. With the 360-degree feedback approach, feedback comes from four sources.
b. 360-degree feedback is most effective when used to train performance raters.
c. Employees do not provide feedback about their own efforts in the 360-degree feedback approach.
d A 360-degree feedback provides feedback from peer workers only.
e. 360-degree feedback should not be used for developmental purposes.
E-Lab (the “E” stands for experience) has project teams perform field research for its clients. These project teams are composed of students of theology, actors, and musicians as well as the more traditional marketing experts and statisticians. E-Lab teams benefit from ____.
a. structural accommodation
b. group norms
c. team diversity
e. aggregated creativity
Which of the following is another term for considerate leadership behavior?
a. employee-centered leadership
b. concern for production
c. job-centered leadership
d. initiating structure behavior
e. participative management
A car manufacturer ordered 20,000 window assemblies from a supplier. To make sure the assemblies were made to specifications, the supplier of the window assemblies shipped a sample to the car manufacturer for testing. This is an example of ____ control.
Managers can motivate employees to increase their efforts by ____.
a. relying on the innate value of extrinsic rewards
b. satisfying higher-order needs first
c. asking employees what their needs are then matching rewards to those needs
d. expecting employees’ needs to remain stable
e. doing all of these
Job specialization can result in ____.
a. complicated job designs
b. high job satisfaction
c. employee boredom
d. low absenteeism
e. low employee turnover
The ____ is a barrier that prevents women and minorities from advancing to the top jobs in an organizations.
a. missing key
b. diversity bottleneck
c. missing rung
d. organizational roadblock
e. glass ceiling
Group cohesion tends to be relatively strong at the ____ stage of team development.
____ is the relatively stable set of behaviors, attitudes, and emotions displayed over time that makes people different from each other.
a. Cognitive activity
Relatively stable characteristics such as abilities, psychological motives, or consistent patterns of behavior, form the basis for the ____ of leadership.
a. path-goal theory
b. expectancy theory
c. situational theory
d. behavioral theory
e. trait theory
The steps in the basic perception process include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
According to a survey done on teaching evaluations, students’ motivation to participate in teaching evaluations is impacted significantly by their expectation that they will be able to provide meaningful feedback. In other words, if they are going to expend the thought and effort to fill out evaluation forms, (1) Is the form designed to gather meaningful information? and (2) Do the students have enough information to form a meaningful opinion about the instruction? In terms of expectancy theory, students are concerned with ____, or whether it is worth their efforts.
Why is information strategically important for organizations?
a. Information can be used to obtain first-mover advantage.
b. Information is derived from perceived knowledge, which limits its availability.
c. Information cannot be used as a medium of exchange.
d. Information creates suboptimization opportunities.
e. All of these are examples of why information is strategically important for organizations.
Airline companies have blamed their recent financial problems on labor unions, the events of September 11, and a weak economy. Those airlines in financial difficulties have tried to solve the problem through short-term price reductions, firings and early retirements, and asking for employees to take pay cuts. The CEOs of these companies have not tried to motivate employees to create long-term solutions to the problems facing the companies. The CEOs of these troubled companies ____.
a. are more interested in doing the right thing than doing things right
b. are more than likely managers rather than leaders
c. are true leaders
d. are promoting long-term change
e. tend to focus on organizational visions, missions, goals, and objectives rather than organizational efficiency and productivity
Which of the following is an internal recruiting method?
b. job posting
d. job fairs
e. Internet job sites
With divisions that focus on business clients and consumer clients, companies like Sprint, American Express, and others are examples of ____ departmentalization.
The two basic methods of capturing information are ____.
a. manual and electronic
b. planned and unplanned
c. systematic and unsystematic
d. functional and hierarchical
e. continuous and intermittent
The three components of ____ are initiation of effort, direction of effort, and persistence of effort.
The fastest-growing population group in the United States is ____.
Which of the following statements about sexual harassment is true?
a. Only people who have themselves been harassed can file complaints or lawsuits.
b. Nonemployees cannot be guilty of sexual harassment.
c. Sexual harassment can occur between people of the same sex.
d. The three kinds of sexual harassment are quid pro quo, bona fide, and disparate treatment.
e. None of these statements about sexual harassment is true.
According to ____, leaders need to make clear how followers can achieve organizational goals, take care of problems that prevent followers from achieving goals, and then find more and varied rewards to motivate followers who achieve those goals.
a. Fiedler’s contingency theory
b. the path-goal theory
c. the Boston Consulting Group leadership matrix
d. the Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision model
e. Blake and Mouton’s leadership grid
Teams are typically required when ____.
a. tasks are simple
b. tasks require multiple perspectives
c. synergy will complicate the problem solution process
d. the company has very limited resources
e. any of these conditions are met
Effective managers define ____ as the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals.
b. interpersonal influence
Functional departmentalization ____.
a. makes it easier for top managers to assess work-unit performance
b. enhances coordination between departments
c. allows work to be done by highly qualified specialists
d. produces managers with broader experience and expertise
e. encourages interdepartmental communicatione
____ is leadership that creates a positive image of the future that motivates organizational members and provides direction for future planning and goal setting.
a. Visionary leadership
b. Supportive leadership
c. Leadership empowerment
d. Transactional leadership
e. Achievement-oriented leadership
____ generates awareness and acceptance of a group’s purpose and mission and gets employees to see beyond their own needs and self-interest for the good of the group.
a. Charismatic leadership
b. Transformational leadership
c. Leadership empowerment
d. Virtual leadership
e. Transactional leadership