The following tables are generated from SPSS. The first table contains the contingency table, similar to Table 35-1 above. The second table contains the χ2 results.
The following interpretation is written as it might appear in a research article, formatted according to APA guidelines (APA, 2010). A Pearson χ2 analysis indicated that antibiotic users had significantly higher rates of antibiotic resistance than those who did not use antibiotics, χ2(1) = 4.20, p = 0.04 (57.1% versus 25%, respectively). This finding suggests that extended antibiotic use may be a risk factor for developing resistance, and further research is needed to investigate resistance as a direct effect of antibiotics.
c. For each variable, the categories are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. It was not possible for a participant to belong to both groups, and the two categories (recent antibiotic user and non-user) included all study participants.
8. The study design in the example was a retrospective comparative design (Gliner et al., 2009).
A retrospective comparative study examining the presence of candiduria (presence of Candida species in the urine) among 97 adults with a spinal cord injury is presented as an additional example. The differences in the use of antibiotics were investigated with the Pearson χ2 test (Goetz, Howard, Cipher, & Revankar, 2010). These data are presented in Table 35-2 as a contingency table.
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1. Do the example data in Table 35-2 meet the assumptions for the Pearson χ2 test? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Grove, Susan K., Daisha Cipher. Statistics for Nursing Research: A Workbook for Evidence-Based Practice, 2nd Edition. Saunders, 022016. VitalBook file.
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