Like many other marketing strategy specialists, Mark Fritz relies heavily on creativity and originality. Members of his team are selected on the basis of their ability to think divergently, and Mark often conducts activities to ensure that this ability is developed. For instance, before any new project, Mark invites his team to sit together and churn out possible ideas about the new product, its theme, and ways in which it can be projected best in the market. These sessions usually provide him with a bank of potential ideas from which the team selects some strong concepts and develops them into a campaign. To encourage freedom in these sessions, Mark has a no-evaluation policy. This is an example of ________.
A. social loafing
C. in-group favoritism
Which of the following statements is true regarding the effect of group cohesiveness and performance norms on group productivity?
A. If cohesiveness is low and performance norms are high, productivity will be low.
B. When cohesiveness is low and performance norms are also low, productivity will be high.
C. The productivity of the group is affected by the performance norms but not by the cohesiveness of the group.
D. If cohesiveness is high and performance norms are low, productivity will be high.
E. When both cohesiveness and performance norms are high, productivity will be high.
Which of the following is an example of performance norms?
A. distribution of pay
B. rules in informal groups
C. the manner in which a job must be done
D. assignment of difficult jobs, pay, and equipment
E. dress codes
Michael is devout and very active in his church. He is also a very dedicated employee. His manager offers him a promotion but the new role will require him to work Sundays. Michael would like the promotion, but realizes that it would force him to miss some church activities. In this situation, Michael is most likely to experience ________.
A. role fuzziness
B. social loafing
E. role conflict
Which of the following is true with regard to groups?
A. A group influences our emotional reactions.
B. An informal gathering cannot be considered a group.
C. A group is characterized by the independence of its members.
D. A group typically lacks definite roles and structures.
E. The membership of a group does not affect how its members treat outsiders.
Groupshift is seen when ________.
A. group members notice and emphasize identities that reflect how different they are from other groups
B. group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions they hold when discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution
C. group members fail to express alternative opinions and deviant views under the influence of the norm for consensus.
D. group members tend to prefer and endorse the products, ideas, and aspects of someone else’s culture over their own
E. group members view themselves in better light when compared to members of the out-group
Which of the following terms indicates the tendency of individuals to spend less effort when working collectively?
A. social facilitation
B. collective efficacy
E. social loafing
Which of the following is a contributing factor with regard to social loafing?
A. severe time constraints
B. dispersion of responsibility
C. high collective efficacy
D. heavy workload
E. difficult task assignments
Hubert Gray needs an instruction manual developed for his new product. This is the last step of the project and he has severe budget constraints. He needs a small team of technical writers to work together closely to write the manual on fairly short notice. He needs them to communicate ideas quickly, creatively, and affordably. Which of the following group techniques should Hubert consider?
A. brainstorming and electronic
B. interacting and brainstorming
D. electronic and interacting
E. nominal and electronic
In discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions they hold. This phenomenon is called ________.
A. halo effect
B. social loafing
C. social desirability bias
D. in-group favoritism
The second stage of the five-stage group development model is characterized by ________.
A. uncertainty about the purpose, structure, and leadership of the group
B. cohesiveness and close relationships among members of the group
C. pride in the accomplishments of the group
D. intragroup conflict within the group
E. strong feelings of group identity among members of the group
________ is defined as the extent to which members of a group are similar to, or different from, one another.
The HR department at Bailey Services is considering offering telecommuting as an option to some experienced employees. At a meeting to formalize the move, the heads of the different departments met with Laura Watson, the HR manager. Laura, who thought this meeting would be a short one, was proven wrong when all the members, who had previously agreed that telecommuting would work in their company, began coming up with divergent views. By the end, two divisions claimed having major concerns about allowing employees to telecommute, and those in favor of it were equally vocal. This scenario depicts the operation of ________.
A. social loafing
C. role conflict
Which of the following steps can be taken by a manager so as to minimize groupthink?
A. asking the group members to first focus on the positives of an alternative rather than the negatives
B. encouraging group leaders to develop a stronger sense of group identity
C. increasing the group size
D. seeking input from employees before the group leader presents his opinions
E. preventing all team members from engaging in a critical evaluation of ideas at the beginning
The determination of the behavioral patterns and assumptions through which the group approaches the project is a function of the ________ phase in the punctuated-equilibrium model.
A. first meeting