Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS CoV) is an emerging infectious disease which was first reported in Saudi Arabia (SA) on September 2012, caused by the novel coronavirus (Ministry of Health, 2015). According to World Health Organization (WHO) (2017), there were 210 MERS CoV cases reported in SA between January and September 2017. Precisely, 87 of these cases were exposed to MERS CoV and 42 cases were healthcare workers (WHO, 2017). The majority of MERS CoV cases were reported in Riyadh. It is well understood that in any outbreak investigation, the main intention is to have relevant and detailed information that will help in realizing accurate and reliable findings for research purposes and infection prevention in future. Certainly, MERS CoV outbreak requires a national and global call for accurate data collection (Majumder, Rivers, Lofgren & Fisman, 2014). Therefore, this paper explores MERS CoV questionnaire which is developed for three important reasons to assess the knowledge of healthcare workers about MERS CoV and help researchers discover causes of this deadly outbreak among healthcare workers in Riyadh. Also, to identify the best possible ways of education of MERS CoV control and prevention.
MERS CoV Questionnaire
MERS CoV questionnaire is designed to assess healthcare workers’ knowledge of MERS CoV in Riyadh, investigate causes of this outbreak among healthcare workers and identify best methods of MERS CoV control education. According to Abdraboh et al., (2016), emphasizing healthcare workers` knowledge and awareness can contribute efficiently in compliance with infection control practices. Healthcare workers in different public healthcare settings from different clinical departments including emergency departments are the target respondents in this investigation as they serve as patient advocates and guardians (Müller et al., 2015). Abdraboh et al., (2016), argued that emergency department had lowest compliance of infection control practices possibly due to large number of patients served and no enough time to perform accurate infection control practices. In this investigation, awareness and knowledge of healthcare workers including those in emergency departments will be investigated clearly to understand their level of compliance. Healthcare workers can contribute positively in MERS CoV control and prevention through infection control practices in healthcare settings (Khan, Shah, Ahmad & Fatokun, 2014). Their knowledge and awareness are highly needed to promote patients and public safety.
MERS CoV questionnaire will be distributed electronically to healthcare workers emails through each healthcare facility portal email in Riyadh to grant many responses as possible. This questionnaire is designed online using survey monkey tool that shows an introductory section explaining the purpose of the questionnaire (Waclawski, 2012). Then, it is divided into two main sections demographic and MERS CoV specific questions. Demographic questions include gender, age, education, job title, work experience, department and healthcare facility displayed as multiple-choice questions with ability to write if none of the choices are applicable. Demographic questions will help researchers in analyzing responses and categorizing them into meaningful groups.
The second section is about MERS CoV specific closed ended questions. It addresses healthcare workers’ awareness of first reported case of MERS CoV in SA which occurred in 2012 (Ministry of Health, 2015). Also, it reveals their basic precautions of MERS CoV modes of transmission, incubation period, signs and symptoms. In addition to, required knowledge of MERS beta coronavirus, knowing that there are four sub-groupings of coronaviruses including alpha, beta, gamma, and delta in which they differ in the signs and symptoms (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). Most importantly, the knowledge of healthcare workers about high risk groups and infection control basic practices. MERS CoV specific questions will give researchers clear idea to plan the necessary educational programs for healthcare workers. Comprehensive educational programs of MERS CoV can be established in Riyadh with the help of Ministry of Health (MOH) in accordance to WHO recommendations (WHO, 2017; MOH, 2015; Khan, Shah, Ahmad & Fatokun, 2014). These programs can include theoretical and practical sessions that will ensure better understanding of MERS CoV high fatality and infection control practices.
MERS CoV questionnaire is designed based on WHO recent report of healthcare workers infected with MERS CoV in Riyadh (WHO, 2017). It is intended to test healthcare workers’ knowledge of MERS CoV in Riyadh, investigate causes of the outbreak among healthcare workers and identify best methods of MERS CoV control education. These goals will discover more information about MERS CoV that could guide future researchers in their studies (Memish et al., 2013). The selected questions are relevant and easy to understand. Based on the responses, researchers will be able to identify causes of MERS CoV outbreak and act accordingly, Also, they will be able to identify knowledge deficit and plan for the needed educational programs (Al-Mohrej et al., 2016; Khan, Shah, Ahmad & Fatokun, 2014). It is important to identify knowledge gaps and the critical elements needed to educate healthcare workers in order to educate the Saudi public to take active roles in MERS CoV prevention (Bawazir, Al-Mazroo, Jradi, Ahmed & Badri, 2017). According to Saudi Vision 2030, preventative measures are needed to reduce and control infectious diseases and one of the good ways to do this is though continuous education.
Answer the following questions:
|Demographic||Gender||A. Male||B. Female|
|Age:||A. 18 – 25 years old||B. 26 – 45 years old||C. 46 years old – above|
|Education||A. High school||B. Bachelor degree||C. Master degree||D. Others, specify|
|Job title:||A. Physician||B. Nurse||C. Others, specify|
|Years of experience:||A. Less than 1 – 3 years||B. 4 – 6 years||C. 7 years – above|
|Health care setting:|
|Department||A. General||B. Medical||C. Surgical|
|D. Critical||E. Emergency||F. Others, specify|
|MERS CoV Specific
|1. The first case of MERS infection occurred in Saudi Arabia in 2012.||A. Yes||B. No||C. I don’t know|
||2. MERS is caused by alpha coronavirus.||A. Yes||B. No||C. I don’t know|
||3. MERS can be fatal.||A. Yes||B. No||C. I don’t know|
||4. One of MERS transmission modes is through saliva and nasal drip from MERS infected patient.||A. Yes||B. No||C. I don’t know|
||5. Fever, cough and shortness of breath are typical symptoms of MERS.||A. Yes||B. No||C. I don’t know|
||6. Incubation time for MERS is 14 days.||A. Yes||B. No||C. I don’t know|
||7. Chronic disease patients are high-risk population for MERS.||A. Yes||B. No||C. I don’t know|
||8. MERS can be prevented by good hygiene practices.||A. Yes||B. No||C. I don’t know|
||9. MERS patients should be kept in isolation.||A. Yes||B. No||C. I don’t know|
||10. Vaccination of MERS is available in the market.||A. Yes||B. No||C. I don’t know|
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