On Women’s Right to Vote
The purpose of Susan B. Anthony’s “On Women’s Right to Vote” speech was to convince Congress (and all men of the United States) to rescind the law that denied women the right to vote on the basis that it was unconstitutional and immoral. Her claim of the speech was that voting should be legalized for women because is a constitutional right provided to all citizens, regardless of sex.
Anthony begins her argument using the Toulmin model by stating a claim and then providing support for that claim. The primarily utilizes logic appeals (logos) in the early parts of her speech, when she directly quotes the Constitution and logically proves that the phrase “we the people” does not exclude, either explicitly or implicitly, women. Furthermore, she utilizes reason how illogical it is to write into the Constitution that calls for the consent of the governed when denies a women the right to vote ensures that she can no longer provide consent to be governed. She cites the Constitutional statement that prohibits the making of any law that denies these basic rights to any citizen or group. She further supports this argument by utilizing the analogy of the establishment of African American voting rights which were formed on the basis of this same argument.
Near the end, Anthony also utilizes emotional appeals to fully engage the audience. It was likely effective at making women feel empowered and men feel ashamed or self-conscious of their actions. “To them this government is not a democracy…It is an odious aristocracy; a hateful oligarchy of sex; the most hateful aristocracy ever established on the face of the globe… (qtd from The History Place)”
Anthony did not make any attempt to see eye-to-eye with her male audience, nor did she attempt to reach a middle ground in any way. Her point was resolute, and her stance was unwavering. She sought to secure women’s right to vote, and she was unwilling to compromise in any way. In this way, she did not utilize the Rogerian model of arguing. It was still incredibly moving, and it is recognized today as one of the more effective speeches in history.
STUDENT 2: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/ike.htm . (Document Reviewed)
For this week’s forum, I decided to write about, “Eisenhower’s Farewell Address to the Nation”. As I was reading the speech, I became reminiscent of Elie Wiesel’s speech from week 2. What I mean is, the speaker or author in this case creates his ethos before evening stating his purpose or claim.
The purpose was, “America’s leadership and prestige depend, not merely upon our unmatched material progress, riches and military strength, but on how we use our power in the interests of world peace and human betterment” (Eisenhower).
The claim is, “Throughout America’s adventure in free government, such basic purposes have been to keep the peace; to foster progress in human achievement, and to enhance liberty, dignity and integrity among peoples and among nations” (Eisenhower).
Eisenhower uses a couple pathos and logos to support the claim. One such example of a pathos used to manipulate the audience is his description of the communist state, particularly how insidious in method they are. Whereas his logos would be how the speaker feels that the solution could come in the form of a costly action.
Eisenhower mentions the opposite side repeatedly throughout the essay. One such examples would be the need to maintain balance in and among national programs. Which was a response to his comments of unrealistic programs.
Eisenhower uses a combination of the Toulmin and Rogerian essay. This is evident because he states a purpose, claim, provides multiple supports for his claim, and acknowledges the opposite side but does so without belittling the opposite view. He also ends the essay by find neutral grounds that both parties could agree with.
STUDENT 3: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/ike.htm . (Document Reviewed)
For this week six forum, I have chosen the Eisenhower’s Farewell Address to the Nation speech as my focus to answer the questions and discuss the methods of this great American presidential speech.
While I was reading through this speech, I found it quite hard to find his claim and I would have to say that I believe that this is the claim of the speech. “Throughout America’s adventure in free government, such basic purposes have been to keep the peace; to foster progress in human achievement, and to enhance liberty, dignity and integrity among peoples and among nations” (Par. 9).
Through out this entire speech Eisenhower brings up the accomplishments of the American people with a very religious point of view. I believe that this would be a form of the use of pathos, simply because religion brings up a lot of emotion to each and every person in its own way and points of view. “Crises there will continue to be. In meeting them, whether foreign or domestic, great or small, there is a recurring temptation to feel that some spectacular and costly action could become the miraculous solution to all current difficulties” (Par. 13). This part of his speech would bring a lot of emotion especially hearing it over the radio, because of the idea of a spectacular and costly action could be a part of your life and your own decisions.
“After a half century of service of our country, I shall lay down the responsibilities of office as, in traditional and solemn ceremony, the authority of the Presidency is vested in my successor” (Par. 2). This statement is a very well said way of expressing logos, because he has stated the amount of time and his position giving him a great figure of reasoning throughout his speech.
In my opinion, he supports his claim by bringing up multiple forms of crisis that America had faced and given great sacrifices in attempt to create a greater freedom for the people. “vital element in keeping the peace is our military establishment” (Par. 15).
I would have to say that in this speech Eisenhower uses a mixture of both methods, because he does indeed bring in many supports and views, but lacks in my opinion by bringing up argumentized points of view for rebuttal. Much rather for just a point to view and have a knowledge for the future development and avoiding the same situations.
STUDENT 4: https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/cdarrowpleaformercy.htm . (Document Reviewed)
For this week in reading I read “Mercy for Leopold and Loeb” by Clarence Darrow. Out of the three that I read, it was the most interesting to read. It was a plea for mercy to not use the death penalty on the subjects Leopold and Loeb who were convicted of a crime and were awaiting a sentence.
The purpose of the writing was to try and persuade the judge, and I assume the jury, to think about whether the death penalty was necessary. The speech used pathos very well. One such example of Darrow using logos to reach his audience is, “Here it Leopold’s father — and this boy was the pride of his life.” Assuming there were other fathers in the audience, this would have brought about emotions from the crowd.
I believe that the speech was using a mixture of the Toulmin and Rogerian methods. The author stayed very neutral and at the same time tried to persuade the audience to agree to his side of the argument. One example of neutrality is,” I care not, your Honor, whether the march begins at the gallows or when the gates of Joilet close upon them, there is nothing but the night, and that is little for any human being to expect” (Darrow). Darrow tried to persuade his audience to agree with his ideals by showing both sides of the picture throughout his speech.
STUDENT 5: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/ike.htm (Document Reviewed)
The “Persuasive American Speech” that i picked was President Eisenhower’s Farewell Address to the Nation. I chose this one cause in my previous English class I wrote an essay on President Eisenhower. It was interesting to learn about all the things he did as president that I did not know about.
The purpose of his speech was to address the nation one final time as President, and to let the American people know his final thoughts after eight years in the white house. I feel the claim of his speech is that Ideas of American government: peace, progress, liberty, dignity, integrity, must continue as our country changes. The president supports an ethos approach, “You and I – my fellow citizens – need to be strong in our faith that all nations, under God, will reach the goal of peace with justice. May we be ever unswerving in devotion to principle, confident but humble with power, diligent in pursuit of the Nations’ great goals”( Eisenhower).
I believe the type of argumentation that was used in the speech was Rogerian. This is because common goals are identified and opposing views are described as objectively as possible in an effort to establish common ground and reach an agreement. “In holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific-technological elite” (Eisenhower).