Presentation of the Findings (Quantitative Only)
Describe the statistical test(s), the variables, and the purpose of the test(s) and how they relate to the hypotheses. Present relevant descriptive statistics (i.e., mean, standard deviation for scale variables; frequencies, and percentages for nominal variables). Provide evaluation of statistical assumptions. Report inferential statistical analyses results, organized by research question, in APA statistical notation/format. Include alpha level chosen for the test, test value, p (significance) values, effect size, degrees of freedom, confidence intervals (when appropriate), and so on. Include appropriate tables and figures to illustrate results, as per the current edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Consult the Instructions for the DBA Template document for correct APA style for formatting and labeling tables and figures.
Summarize answers to research questions. Describe in what ways findings confirm, disconfirm, or extend knowledge of the theoretical framework and relationship(s) among variables by comparing the findings with other peer-reviewed studies from the literature review. Includes studies addressed during the proposal stage and studies added since writing the proposal. Tie findings or dispute findings to the existing literature on effective business practice. Analyze and interpret the findings in the context of the theoretical framework, as appropriate. Ensure interpretations do not exceed the data, findings, and scope.
Presentation of the Findings (Qualitative Only)
List the overarching research question. Identifies each theme, and analyzes and discuss findings in relation to the themes. Describe in what ways findings confirm, disconfirm, or extend knowledge in the discipline by comparing the findings with other peer-reviewed studies from the literature review; includes literature added since writing the proposal. Tie findings to the conceptual framework, and tie findings or dispute findings to the existing literature on effective business practice.
A sample APA-compliant table is included below (see Table 1). Instructions for creating tables and adding table numbers and titles are included in the accompanying Instructions document available on the Templates page of the Doctoral Capstone Form and Style site.
Table 1 A Sample Table Showing Correct Formatting
|Column B||Column C||Column D|
Note. From “Attitudes Toward Dissertation Editors,” by W. Student, 2008, Journal of Academic Optimism, 98, p. 11. Reprinted with permission.
Applications to Professional Practice
Provide a detailed discussion on the applicability of the findings with respect to the professional practice of business. This major subsection provides a rich academic argument why and how the findings are relevant to improved business practice.
Implications for Social Change
The implications are expressed in terms of tangible improvements to individuals, communities, organizations, institutions, cultures, or societies, as the finding could affect social change/behavior.
Recommendations for Action
Recommendations (a) should flow logically from the conclusions and contain steps to useful action, (b) state who needs to pay attention to the results, and (c) indicate how the results might be disseminated via literature conferences, training, and so on.
Recommendations for Further Research
List recommendations for further study related to improved practice in business. Identify how limitations identified in Section 1, Limitations, can be addressed in future research.
Include a reflection on your experience within the DBA Doctoral Study process, in which you discuss possible personal biases or preconceived ideas and values, the possible effects of those on the participants or the situation, and changes in your thinking after completing the study.
The work closes with a strong concluding statement making the take-home message clear to the reader.
Insert References here. Examples of some common types of references follow; see APA 6.22 and Chapter 7 for more details.
These sample entries are tagged with the “APA Reference” style tag, which means the line spacing and hanging indent are automatic. Apply the “APA Reference” style tag to your entries.
Pay special attention to italics, capitalization, and punctuation. The style tag does not govern those aspects of the entry.
Print periodical (journal)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1994). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx(x), xxx–xxx.
Online periodical (journal)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1994). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx(x), xxx–xxx. doi:xxxxx
Author, A. A. (1994). Title of work. City of Publication, ST: Publisher.
Chapter in a book
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1994). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). City, ST: Publisher.
Chapter 7 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, sixth edition, includes numerous examples of reference list entries. For more information on references or APA style, consult the APA website or the Walden Writing Center website .
Appendix A: Title of Appendix
Insert appendix here. Appendices are ordered with letters rather than numbers. If there is but one appendix, it has no letter designation.
The appendices must adhere to the same margin specifications as the body of the dissertation. Photocopied or previously printed material may have to be shifted on the page or reduced in size to fit within the area bounded by the margins.
If the only thing in an appendix is a table, the table title serves as the title of the appendix; no label is needed for the table itself. If you have text in addition to a table or tables in an appendix, label the table with the letter of the appendix (e.g., Table A1, Table A2, Table B1, and so on). These tables would be listed in the List of Tables at the end of the Table of Contents.
If you include in an appendix any prepublished materials that are not in the public domain, you must also include permission to do so.
Template updated March 2017.