PRIVATE CARDIAC CENTERS
For this paper, research the private health care sector in your country or region. Begin by selecting one of following health concerns as the substantive basis of your research:
· Heart disease
· Child and well-baby care
· Aging and Alzheimer’s.
Identify what private health services for your chosen problem are available in your region. Describe how these services are delivered and funded when delivered by the private sector. Analyze the advantages and disadvantages associated with private healthcare. Provide examples and support your statements with logic and argument, citing any sources referenced.
Private Cardiac Centers
HCM 515 – Health Ethics and Law
Saudi Electronic University
Private Cardiac Centers
Healthcare system in Saudi Arabia (SA) is improving. Advancement of healthcare services and development of healthcare centers are seen in many areas across the country. These changes are part of the continuous healthcare improvement (Parveen,2015). Because of healthcare system’s responsiveness to population needs, constructive actions are made in health system especially to heart disease population (Al-Yousuf, Akerele & Al-Mazrou, 2002). Ministry of Health (MOH) is the leading force of the Saudi healthcare system (Almalki, FitzGerald & Clark, 2011). There are three levels of healthcare systems which are primary, secondary and tertiary in general or private healthcare centers (Almalki, FitzGerald & Clark, 2011). There are 13 geographical regions in SA which have 19 health regions (Al-Yousuf, Akerele & Al-Mazrou, 2002). Each health region is managed by healthcare director who report to MOH (Albejaidi, 2010).
There are 426 hospitals in SA, 274 MOH hospitals, 43 other governmental hospitals and 145 are private hospitals. In Riyadh, the capital city of SA, there are 47 public hospitals while private hospitals are 36 and private clinics are 29 (MOH, 2015). There are 28 cardiac centers across SA which are specialized healthcare facilities that provide comprehensive healthcare services to patients which include cardiac imaging, cardiac monitoring, cardiac catheterization procedures, surgeries and life style modification programs (MOH, 2015). In Riyadh, there are ten cardiac centers in which six of them are private centers or provide private healthcare services (MOH, 2015). Private cardiac healthcare services are provided in Dr. Sulaiman Al Habib Medical Group, Dallah hospital, Kingdom Hospital and Consulting Clinics (KHCC), King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center (KACC) in Ministry of National Guard – Health Affairs (MNG-HA), King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center and Mouwasat hospital.
Private Cardiac Healthcare Services in Riyadh
Dr. Sulaiman Al-Habib Medical Group (HMG) is a major private healthcare sector in the Middle East. It is established in 1995 and it has effectively developed many healthcare facilities (HMG, 2015). In 2010, HMG established rehabilitation programs and great expansions of bed numbers to 360 beds in which 50 of these beds for emergency and 118 beds for intensive care including cardiac care in Arryan district (HMG, 2015). Dr. Sulaiman Al-Habib Medical Group encompasses specialized cardiology center for all age groups which provide all healthcare services 24 hours. HMG provides innovative high technological and medical interventions such cardiac catheterization procedures and others. All the medical staff have highly qualified competencies in all cardiological specialties such as pediatric cardiac surgeries and disorders of electrical physiology (HMG, 2015).
HMG provides an easy healthcare, technical and medical service strategy for patients which is E-services strategy. Patients can register their information, book appointments, check the status of insurance approvals, view prescriptions, laboratory and radiology results. Due to the high technological advancements, HMG has received the highest award for best adoption and application of the electronic medical records from the International Association for Information Systems and Management of Health Care (Arab News, 2015). Healthcare services are also provided on site in HMG based on availability. HMG is a for profit healthcare setting that operates based on out-of-pocket spending, private pre-paid insurance plans and employers funding (Khaliq, 2012). HMG employers provide private health insurances for their expatriate staff and Saudi nationals working in HMG (The Economist Intelligence Unit, 2014). HMG is supervised by Ministry of health (MOH) and accredited by Joint Commission International for Accreditation (JCI).
Another private healthcare setting is Dallah hospital which is established in 1987 (Dallah Hospital, 2014). Dallah Hospital has been a leader in the provision of high quality health services in Riyadh. Cardiac center in Dallah hospital has qualified medical team with a wide range of experiences in cardiac sciences. It has comprehensive specialized services for cardiac patients. These services include the diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases on site using advanced medical technology (Dallah Hospital, 2014). Available medical services include electrocardiography, echocardiography, continuous ambulatory 24-hour electrocardiography, diagnostic cardiac catheterization, exercise stress test, pharmacological stress testing and cardiac surgeries (Dallah Hospital, 2014). Dallah hospital works based on fee for services, private insurances and employers funding (Khaliq, 2012). MOH has mandated all private healthcare centers including Dallah hospital to provide private health insurances for expatriate staff and Saudi nationals (The Economist Intelligence Unit, 2014).
Another private leading center is Kingdom Hospital and Consulting Clinics (KHCC). It is one of the most extensively equipped private hospitals in SA. It is one of the extraordinary successes of Prince Al Waleed Bin Talal Al Saud which is established in 2001. KHCC have developed high standard cardiac center characterized by advanced technology and high quality of healthcare services with the aim to reduce the risk of cardiac diseases in the community (KHCC, 2017). Healthcare services in KHCC include development of individualized heart disease prevention programs, regular follow-up for patients, patient education, echocardiogram, cardiac stress test, electrocardiogram, Holter monitoring, diagnostic procedures and cardiac surgeries (KHCC, 2017). KHCC services are provided based on health services financing from private sources such as personal out-of-pocket spending, health insurances and external sources of financing that is royal funding (World Health Organization, 2006).
Ministry of National Guard – Health Affairs (MNG-HA) is a governmental hospital that provides healthcare services to Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG) personnel and their dependents (MNG-HA, 2017). MNG-HA is an independent and organized agency which control the healthcare services independently from of the MOH (Albejaidi, 2010). King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center (KACC) in MNG-HA started operations in 1999. It provides comprehensive programs for the management of heart diseases. It is an accredited high-quality center that provides different cardiac services to both adults and children (MNG-HA, 2017). The center offers many cardiac healthcare services using advanced technologies for accurate and quick medical diagnosis. Healthcare services include cardiac imaging, diagnostics, surgeries, rehabilitation, life style modifications to inpatients and outpatients (MNG-HA, 2017).
KACC has an advanced Nurse-Based Physician-supervised congestive heart failure and Atherosclerosis clinic that offers comprehensive multi-disciplinary programs (MNG-HA, 2017). Research is a priority with ongoing educational programs in KACC. The center produces many publications annually reflecting leadership role in cardiac research (MNG-HA, 2017). Business center in MNG-HA offers for profit healthcare services including cardiac services for patients. Delivery of healthcare services by business center in MNG-HA is based on fee for services (MNG-HA, 2017).
In 1970, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC) is approved by King Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud as he placed the foundation stone of this remarkable hospital (KFSH&RC, 2017). It is well known for its achievements and accomplishments in medicine and healthcare technology. KFSH&RC has received many awards such as oracle award, global health exchange award and digital excellence award. Also, it is accredited by many international healthcare accreditation agencies. KFSH&RC is qualified by Accreditation for Cardiovascular Excellence (ACE), The Society of Cardiovascular Patient Care (SCPC) accreditation, The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Accreditation and JCI accreditation (KFSH&RC, 2017).
Heart Center in KFSH&RC delivers life-saving care to patients from different age groups. It provides congenital heart disease programs to pediatric population (KFSH&RC, 2017). It provides many unique healthcare services such as pacemaker implantation, cardiac catheterization, cardio-oncology programs, adult congenital heart disease programs and heart transplant programs (KFSH&RC, 2017). KFSH&RC is a governmental hospital which has a business center that offers for profit healthcare services for patients. Business center is a private healthcare center in KFSH&RC which applies quality control and cost containment programs to ensure that healthcare services provided to contracted patients meet the high-quality standards. Financing business center in KFSH&RC is based on fee for services (KFSH&RC, 2017).
Mouwasat hospital is another private healthcare setting in Riyadh. It has a specialized cardiac unit that provide variety of healthcare services which include cardiac surgeries under the supervision of experienced consultants along with a qualified medical team (Mouwasat Hospital, 2017). The unit has been supplied by the most advanced cardiac catheterization equipment’s, cardiac ultrasound equipment’s, voltage measurement equipment’s and stress examination machines (Mouwasat Hospital, 2017). It operates based on fee for services and healthcare insurances (Albejaidi, 2010). Private healthcare insurances are provided to Saudis and non-Saudis employees of Mouwasat hospital.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Private Healthcare
The ability of private healthcare centers to serve any function patient’s needs is considered a great advantage. Private healthcare sectors offer attractive incentives to stakeholders from commercial perspectives (Yusuf, 2014). Decrease the burden of healthcare expenditures by the government is another advantage of private healthcare participation (Yusuf, 2014). Also, an advantage of private healthcare sectors is MOH full supervision. MOH is managing private sectors either directly or through the medical units of commerce and industry in SA (WHO, 2006). MOH supervision include preforming regulatory authority on the prices of medical services and pharmaceutical products which is a considered a benefit for population (Khaliq, 2011). Private healthcare sectors in SA are considered potential destinations for medical tourism (Khan & Alam, 2014). Other advantages of for private healthcare sectors are ease of healthcare access, shorter waiting periods, more flexible opening hours, highly specialized and technological healthcare services, quick and available booking of appointments (Swan & Zwi, 1997). Also, greater availability of consultants and continuity of care (Swan, M., & Zwi, 1997).
Disadvantages of private healthcare sectors are the high prices of healthcare services especially for those who don’t have private health insurances (National Procedures Institute, 2017). In addition to, limited number of beds in private healthcare centers. Private healthcare services are intended for middle and high class and poor people are excluded from treatment since they can’t pay for the services (National Procedures Institute, 2017). Private healthcare sectors are mainly in urban areas while rural areas are having difficulty to access healthcare services (Yusuf, 2014). There is inequity in the distribution and access of private healthcare sectors (The World Bank, 2005).
Healthcare system in SA is remarkably improving. Advancement and development of healthcare centers including cardiac centers are seen in many areas across the country. In Riyadh, there are ten cardiac centers in which six of them are private centers or provide private healthcare services to patients (MOH,2015). Private cardiac healthcare services are provided in HMG, Dallah hospital, KHCC, KACC in MNG-HA, KFSH&RC and Mouwasat hospital. Private healthcare settings are for profit healthcare sectors which provide healthcare services based on out-of-pocket spending, private healthcare insurances and employers funding (Khaliq, 2012). Advantages of private healthcare sectors are ease of healthcare access, shorter waiting periods, more flexible opening hours, highly specialized and technological healthcare services, quick and available booking of appointments (Swan & Zwi, 1997). In addition to, response to population needs. Disadvantages of private healthcare sectors are the high prices of healthcare services and limited number of beds. Also, healthcare services are intended for middle and high class people (National Procedures Institute, 2017). In addition to, inequity in the distribution and access of private healthcare sectors (The World Bank, 2005). Cardiac centers in SA are showing outstanding improvements in cardiac sciences and research. Therefore, Saudi cardiac centers should be recognized in international level (Foda, 2010).
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