All people are mortal, therefore Socrates is mortal is an example of which type of logic?
22. Dr. Quinn is interested in who is least likely to show up for their trial; those who bond out of jail with the help of a bondsman or those placed in a court sponsored pre-trial release program. The results of the study indicate that those inmates released using a bail bondsmen had a lower failure to appear at trial rate than those using court sponsored pre-trial release. The findings of the study are used to close the expensive court run pre-trial release program. This study is an example of what type of research?
a. theory building
b. applied research
c. basic or pure research
d. a paradigm shift
23. Which of the following is not an example of a hypothesis?
a. there are too many inmates in America’s prisons and jails
b. a person charged with a crime is more likely to be found guilty using a court appointed attorney than a privately retained one
c. there is a relationship between being acquitted at trial and one’s perceived physical attractiveness
d. the rise in the number of minorities going to prison is the result of American’s war on drugs
24. Independent of opinion is a definition of:
a. an analysis
d. a hypothesis
25. This term represents a set of concepts and the proposed relationships among these; a structure that is intended to represent or model something about the world.
a. a paradigm
b. a law
c. a theory
d. a fact
26. Which of the following best applies to the statement that science is always objective?
a. this only happens in the study of economics
b. objectivity is a matter of intersubjective agreement
c. objectivity can never happen when engaged in scientific research
d. objectivity is always present when a researcher knows all of the variables impacting their study
27. You count the number of students registered for your research methods class. This is an example of:
28. When the relationship between two variables is drawn from a theory, it is said to be:
a. a fact
b. a hypothesis
c. a mini theory
d. a paradigm
29. Dr. Smith is doing an observational study in a local jail and discovers that inmates who are respectful to the correctional officers get more telephone calls than inmates who are disrespectful. What technique has been employed in the study?
a. evaluation research
b. inductive logic
c. deductive logic
d. theory construction
30. The more a person drinks and drives the more likely they are to be pulled over for DUI. This is an example of:
a. a theory
b. a law
c. a hypothesis that results in a negative relationship
d. a hypothesis that results in a positive relationship
31. Conclusions drawn about the relationships among concepts, based on the logical interrelationship among the axioms is:
a. a law
b. a proposition
c. an axiom
d. a statement
32. Which of the following cannot be studied scientifically in the field of criminal justice?
a. the relationship between the number of police officers on the street and the crime rate
b. the relationship between the number of police officers on the street and citizen satisfaction
c. the role that an act of a deity plays on being arrested for a criminal offense
d. the role that age plays in slowing one’s criminal activities
33. The “Chicago School” was noted for the study of crime in various sections of the city of Chicago. Which of the following was used to study where crime happened?
a. concentric zones
b. ask people why they left Chicago for other northern cities
c. interviews with police officers
d. content analysis of newspapers
34. Which of the following cannot be studied scientifically?
a. physical attributes of humans
b. the purpose of life
c. changes in the number of elephants in the wild
35. Operationalization means:
a. the part of a theory that tells us how variables are related
b. the procedures we go through to identify and measure variables
c. the procedures we go through before we can develop a hypothesis
d. the part of a theory that tells us what statistics we can use
36. Which of the following is most accurate?
a. theory must always come before observation
b. observation must always come before theory
c. theory may precede observation; just as observation may precede theory
d. theory and observation are not related
37. The primary distinction between a paradigm and theory is based on:
a. intersubjective agreement
b. a hypothesis
c. organization and structure
38. Which of the following is not true concerning theory, research and policy relationships?
a. theory structures research
b. policies can be examined to determine if they accomplish their goals
c. theory should never be used to develop public policy
d. research is consulted to develop public policy
39. Which of the following characterizes the statement: “criminal justice and human behavior often can be studied scientifically”?
a. the statement is wishful thinking
b. the statement is correct
c. the statement is inaccurate
d. the statement fails to address problems in studying human behavior
40. The three main elements in the traditional model of science include theory, operationalization, and: