The following screenshot is a replica of what your SPSS window will look like. The data for subjects 24 through 42 are viewable by scrolling down in the SPSS screen.
The following tables are generated from SPSS. The first table contains the contingency table, similar to Table 35-1 above. The second table contains the χ2 results.
The following interpretation is written as it might appear in a research article, formatted according to APA guidelines (APA, 2010). A Pearson χ2 analysis indicated that antibiotic users had significantly higher rates of antibiotic resistance than those who did not use antibiotics, χ2(1) = 4.20, p = 0.04 (57.1% versus 25%, respectively). This finding suggests that extended antibiotic use may be a risk factor for developing resistance, and further research is needed to investigate resistance as a direct effect of antibiotics.
c. For each variable, the categories are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. It was not possible for a participant to belong to both groups, and the two categories (recent antibiotic user and non-user) included all study participants.
8. The study design in the example was a retrospective comparative design (Gliner et al., 2009).
A retrospective comparative study examining the presence of candiduria (presence of Candida species in the urine) among 97 adults with a spinal cord injury is presented as an additional example. The differences in the use of antibiotics were investigated with the Pearson χ2 test (Goetz, Howard, Cipher, & Revankar, 2010). These data are presented in Table 35-2 as a contingency table.
Name: _______________________________________________________ Class: _____________________
Follow your instructor’s directions to submit your answers to the following questions for grading. Your instructor may ask you to write your answers below and submit them as a hard copy for grading. Alternatively, your instructor may ask you to use the space below for notes and submit your answers online at http://evolve.elsevier.com/Grove/statistics/ under “Questions to Be Graded.”
1. Do the example data in Table 35-2 meet the assumptions for the Pearson χ2 test? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Grove, Susan K., Daisha Cipher. Statistics for Nursing Research: A Workbook for Evidence-Based Practice, 2nd Edition. Saunders, 022016. VitalBook file.
The citation provided is a guideline. Please check each citation for accuracy before use.
Need answers of questions to be graded at the end of each exercise.