traditional model of science
What is the final step in the traditional model of science?
b. theory development
c. data collection
42. The results of Burgess and Park’s study using the concentric circles in the city of Chicago resulted in:
a. the finding that where ever the poorest people live will be the least amount of crime
b. the finding that where the most wealthy people live will be the highest rates of property crime
c. the finding that the crime rate will be the highest in the area characterized by transition
d. the finding that when people move from one zone to another, they take their criminal tendencies with them
43. The concept of “observation” in the language of science means
a. looking at the world and making value judgments
b. looking at the world and making measurements of what is seen
c. looking at the world and making changes in what is seen
d. looking at the world through rose colored glasses
44. Grounded theory is used to:
a. measure how much common sense went into a specific theory
b. describe the inductive method of theory construction
c. describe the deductive method of theory construction
d. assess the elements that make up dirt
45. Which of the following is not a concept?
a. juvenile delinquency
b. peer group
c. grade in research methods
46. Which of the following is an axiom?
a. working class youths have higher delinquency rates than upper class youths
b. working class youths would be more likely to break the law to gain material goods than upper class youths
c. everyone desires material comforts
d. social class has no bearing on the tendency to break the law
47. Which of the following is the most accurate?
a. “just as clothing goes in and out of fashion, paradigms that influence criminal justice come and go”
b. “just as there are solid rules of physics, paradigms represent solid ideas about the relationship between variables”
c. “just as clothing goes in and out of fashion, axioms come and go as well”
d. “just as clothing goes in and out of fashion, variables come and go as well”
48. Paradigm shifts are:
a. shifted to resemble concepts
b. concepts shifted to paradigms
c. previously agreed on paradigms that are discarded in favor of new ones
d. previously agreed upon paradigms that are changed over to a hypothesis
49. Defensible Space is:
a. the current U.S. policy for protecting Americans
b. an attempt to understand the link between urban design and crime
c. a movie that demonstrates how to protect yourself
d. U.S. missile defense system
50. Operationalization involves which of the following?
a. testing hypotheses
b. testing theories
c. identifying how you will measure a variable
d. developing a theory
51. The idea of defensible space can be traced to the work of:
a. Shaw and McKay
c. David Takeuchi
d. Maxfield and Babbie
52. The second step in the traditional model of science is which of the following?
53. Which of the following is accurate with respect to induction?
a. induction begins with a theory
b. induction starts with observed data
c. induction ends with relationships
d. induction begins with generalizations
54. Townsley and associates proposed that just as disease spreads, crime spreads, they referred to this as:
c. hot spots
d. repeat victimization
55. Grounded theories refer to which of the following?
a. testing a theory to see if the data fits
b. theories that have been constructed by faculty just beginning their careers
c. describes the inductive method of theory construction
d. describes the deductive method of theory construction
56. Researchers developed the contagion theory of burglary by all of the following except?
a. they examined patterns across various neighborhoods
b. they were able to compare the spread of crime with the spread of disease
c. they linked their findings to existing theories of environmental criminology
d. they took a sociological theory and called it a contagion theory
57. If grades go up as the number of study hours go up, this is called what type of relationship?
d. a fluke
58. Scientific inquiry in practice typically involves a relationship between:
a. theory and policy
b. concepts and paradigms
c. hypothesis and hypotheses
d. deduction and induction
59. According to ecological theory, which of the following is not a fundamental principle?
a. crime is more common in urban transition zones
b. crime is more common is suburban transition zones
c. crime is more common where there is a great deal of crowding
d. crime is more common where there is much poverty
60. Which of the following illustrates the relationship between a theory and a paradigm?
a. theories are collections of hypotheses while a paradigm uses just one hypothesis
b. a paradigm is more specific than a theory
c. a theory is more specific than a paradigm
d. a theory is a paradigm
1. Research in criminology has moved from descriptive studies to those that place a greater emphasis on systematic .
2. The logic of social scientific inquiry is based in the use of _________ to guide the inquiry.
3. The zone of transition in Chicago characterized by weak families, social institutions and substandard housing produced a phenomenon called _________________ disorganization.
4. When one moves from particular instances to general principles – from facts to theories, one is using _____________ reasoning.
5. An axiom is an assumption about reality, while a proposition expresses relationships among ________________.
6. A(n) ___________ is a fundamental model or scheme that organizes our view of something.
7. Another word for intersubjective agreement is .
8. The process of specifying steps, procedures, or operations for actually identifying and measuring variables to be observed is .
9. When crime prevention policies try to reduce the opportunities for crime to occur, _______________ crime prevention is being employed.
10. When a researcher monitors and evaluates results of a program to determine if it is achieving its goals, this step is similar to ___________ testing in basic research.
11. Using the deductive model, research is used to test _______________.
12. Using the inductive model, _______________ are developed from the analysis of research data.
13. The two pillars of science are observation and __________________.
14. __________ logic moves from the general to the specific.
15. ______________ logic moves from specific data to general assumptions.