TV news viewership
TV news viewershipTV news viewership has declined steadily over the past two decades. Several factors may have contributed to the decline: busy lifestyles, lack of interest, and the rise of the Internet. As viewership has declined, the remaining viewers have aged. Today, the average evening news viewer is 60 years old. TV networks’ response to these changes has largely been negative. They have dropped hard news in favor of opinion pieces, “puff pieces,” and stories that are of interest only to their older demographic. As a result, TV news has not just become unpopular, it has also become largely worthless.
The following questions are based on this passage.
1. Which of the following statements from the passage is an opinion?
A. Several factors may have contributed to the decline.
B. As viewership has declined, the remaining viewers have aged.
C. They have dropped hard news.
D. It has also become largely worthless.
2. Which of the following is the author’s purpose in the passage?
A. To convince readers that TV news is no longer worth watching
B. To show how busy lifestyles have caused a decline in TV news watching
C. To explain that TV news uses “puff pieces” to attract viewers
D. To describe how the Internet has had an adverse effect on TV news
Peat bogs are wetlands that contain acidic water and large deposits of compressed, dead plant material known as peat. Peat bogs are typically shallow and punctuated by areas of semi-dry land. Slabs of peat can be cut from the bog and used in agriculture or dried and then burned as fuel. Peat was a significant fuel in some pre-industrial societies, especially those that lacked plentiful firewood. Peat bogs can preserve dead plants and animals because the acidic water prevents rotting and decomposition. Importantly, some of the best-preserved early human remains have been discovered in peat bogs.
The following questions are based on this passage.
3. A logical conclusion based on the passage is that peat bogs
A. are good environments for archeological investigation.
B. have been disappearing since the Industrial Revolution.
C. are viable sources of potable water for many communities.
D. have been a primary source of carbon emissions into the atmosphere.
4. Which of the following sentences from the passage contains an opinion?
A. Peat bogs are typically shallow and punctuated by areas of semi-dry land.
B. Peat was a significant fuel in some pre-industrial societies, especially those that lacked plentiful firewood.
C. Peat bogs can preserve dead plants and animals because the acidic water prevents rotting and decomposition.
D. Importantly, some of the best-preserved early human remains have been discovered in peat bogs.
Business-Speak In recent years the business world has coined its own unique, jargon-filled sub-language. This sub-language is often called “business-speak” (or “manager-speak,” since some of its most enthusiastic users are managers and executives).
Business-speak is not a unique phenomenon. Every profession or field invents its own specialized words, in order to express complicated ideas without excessive wordiness. For example, the casino world popularized the term “camps,” which refers to free gifts or services given to casino patrons to encourage them to gamble.
Business-speak contains some useful phrases, but also suffers from three major problems: unnecessary words, euphemistic words, and overused words.
The first problem is that of unnecessary words. Jargon is only useful if no existing words can do the job- but many business-speak phrases replace perfectly good existing phrases. For example, “vis-a-vis” is often used instead of the simpler “in relation to” or “compared to.” In this case, the business-speak phrase isn’t much shorter than existing phrases, but it is definitely more obscure. This is a step in the wrong direction.
The second problem is that of euphemism. Instead of simplifying a complicated concept, much business-speak is meant to soften the blow of negativity. Hence, layoffs become “reductions,” or “downsizing,” or even “right-sizing.” Instead of making things better, these euphemistic words often make their users seem insincere and uncaring.
The final problem is that of overuse. People overuse business-speak in order to appear professional or intelligent. But in doing so, they may end up sounding foolish and may fail to get their points across at all.
In summary, a little business-speak goes a long way. A wise person will keep a sharp lookout for unnecessary, euphemistic, and cliched business-speak and will cut it from his or her vocabulary as quickly and ruthlessly as possible.
The following questions are based on the “Business-Speak” passage.
5. Which of the following sentences from the passage contains only factual information, as opposed to opinion?
A. In recent years the business world has coined its own unique, jargon-filled sub-language.
B. Instead of making things better, these euphemistic words often make their users seem insincere and uncaring.
C. People overuse business-speak in order to appear professional or intelligent.
D. A wise person will keep a sharp lookout for unnecessary, euphemistic, and cliched business-speak.
6. Which of the following sentences best summarizes the passage?
A. Business-speak can be a useful communication tool, but it should be used conservatively.
B. Useful existing phrases are too often replaced by unnecessary instances of business-speak.
C. Various professions develop their own language, which is used for efficiency within their circles.
D. Business-speak may cause communication to become impersonal and insincere.
7. Which of the following statements from the passage is a supporting detail for the notion that there are problems with business-speak?
A. Some of its most enthusiastic users are managers and executives.
B. Business-speak is not a unique phenomenon.
C. The casino world popularized the term “camps.”
D. Much business-speak is meant to soften the blow of negativity.
8. The author of the passage would most likely approve of which of the following instances of business-speak?
A. Using “disambiguate” instead of “clarify”
B. Using “resource-intensive” instead of “expensive”
C. Using “best practices” instead of “policies that have been shown to be most effective”
D. Using “took a bath” instead of “lost a lot of money in a venture that did not work”
9. Which of the following industries most likely originated the business-speak term “bandwidth”?
B. Real Estate
D. Health care
Siberia is a giant, semi-arctic region encompassing most of northern Asia. Most of Siberia is, or has once been, part of Russia or the Soviet Union. Much of Siberia is frozen and empty. Though Siberia contributes almost 80% of Russia’s land area, only a quarter of Russia’s population lives there, mainly huddled along the territory’s southern fringe. Siberia is perhaps best known for the infamous prison labor camps known as the Gulag, where Russia (and later the Soviet Union) sent many of the nation’s prisoners. Because of the Gulag, the name “Siberia” has become international slang for an undesirable, remote location.
The following questions are based on this passage.
10. Which of the following statements from the passage contains opinion or bias?
A. Siberia is a giant, semi-arctic region encompassing most of northern Asia.
B. Most of Siberia is, or has once been, part of Russia or the Soviet Union.
C. Though Siberia contributes almost 80% of Russia’s land area, only a quarter of Russia’s population lives there.
D. Siberia is perhaps best known for the infamous prison labor camps known as the Gulag.
11. Which of the following proposed titles best captures the theme of the passage?
A. Siberia: Russia’s Vast, Inhospitable Expanse
B. Siberia: Surviving in the Great Wilderness of Northern Asia
C. Siberia: The Role of the Gulag in Soviet Life
D. Siberia: Life in the Arctic Fringe
12. Which of the following characteristics best describes the writing in this passage?
13. Cell Phones
Cellular Plan 1
550 minutes for $89/month
Includes unlimited long distance, nights & weekends, & 500 text messages.
Cellular Plan 2
600 minutes for $90/month
Includes unlimited nights & weekends, & unlimited text messaging.
Cellular Plan 3
900 minutes for $90/month
Includes unlimited long distance & unlimited nights & weekends. First 200 text messages are free, $0.05/message additional.
Cellular Plan 4
550 minutes for $50/month
Text messages $0.1 0/message sent or received.
Which of the following cellular phone plans bests fits the needs of an individual who sends an average of 50 text messages per day and primarily talks on the phone at night?
14. United Nations, 310, 314, 362
charter of, 311
Declaration of, 309
United States, 225, 238, 275, 289
in Big Four, 322, 325-7
in League of Nations, 299
Lend-Lease policy of, 307
Neutrality of, 305
as United Nations sponsor, 313
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 316
“The essence of the Declaration achieved a central goal of the United States, binding the three great nations – as well as the smaller powers- to fight together until the Axis was defeated.”
Using the index, which of the following pages would likely contain the sentence above?
15. Cridder Getter Ridder Pest Control
We are the environmentally friendly exterminating service for your home. We get those pests that nobody wants to see. We offer:
Total pest control
Money-back guaranteed results in 3 days
Money-back guaranteed no pests for 1 year
Safe return home 1 hour after treatment is complete
We belong to the National Pest Control Society, as well as the Urban Pest Control Society. We have been in business for over 50 years, 20 of which have been in this town.
16. Which of the following statements is supported by the advertisement?
A. Cridder Getter Ridder will provide a refund if a customer has pests return 1 0 months after treatment.
B. Cridder Getter Ridder’s practices are environmentally certified by the National Pest Control Society.
C. Customers can return home safely 1 hour after the exterminator arrives at the property.
D. This particular exterminator company has been in business in this town for 50 years.
17. Setting Up Your Universal Remote Control
Searching For Your Device Codes
For example, to search for a code for your TV:
1. Turn on your TV.
2. On the remote control, press TV once; the button will blink once. Then press and hold SETUP until the TV key blinks twice, then release SETUP.
3. Enter 9-9-1. The TV key will blink twice.
4. Aim the remote control at the TV and slowly alternate between pressing PWR and TV. Stop when the TV turns off. NOTE: The remote control will send IR codes from its library to the selected device, starting with the most popular code.
5. Press SETUP once to lock in the code. The TV key will blink twice.
6. To search for the codes of your other devices, repeat steps 1 through 5, but substitute the appropriate key (e.g .,AUX, DVD, AUD, or CBL) for the device you are searching for.
The following questions are based on the directions.
18. Which of the following is correct based on the directions above?
A. The code for operating a TV using this remote control is 991.
B. The code obtained for a TV will work for other devices as well.
C. When the TV turns off during step 4, the remote control has found the code.
D. During step 5, the user must press the SETUP button twice to lock in the code.
19. Which of the following correctly describes the use of a text feature in the directions?
A. Bold text is used to indicate the text on the buttons of the remote control.
B. Bold text is used to emphasize headings within the directions.
C. Italics are used to indicate an exception to the normal function of the remote control.
D. Italics are used to emphasize an important step for the user to take.
Eating Habits………………………………….. 1-15
Geographic Areas …………………………… 21-22
Endangered Species ……………………….. 23-24
Growth and Development …………………. 25-30
Relationships with Humans………………… 31-34
In Captivity ……………………………………… 35-37
Relationships with Other Species ………. 38-40
Response to Changes in Habitat ……….. 41-45
21. Which of the following page ranges will most likely provide information on how pandas learn to climb trees?