First Wave (1830-1925): (First Wave = Basis for the ideologies of liberal vs. cultural feminism)
Women’s rights movement Liberal: Women are equals, thus deserving of equal rights, opportunities, and access to roles.
Cult of domesticity Cultural: Women are fundamentally different from men, thus different rights, opportunities, and roles follow.
Second Wave (1960-present):
Radical feminism Liberal: Women’s oppression deserves the same redress as racial injustice and government abuses. [New Left]
Liberal feminism Liberal: Discontent of middle-class women is justified and is a result of lack of equity. [NOW]
Lesbian feminism Liberal: Only women whose lives are not organized around men are free; hence, lesbianism is a value.
Ecofeminism Could be either Liberal or Cultural: Any form of oppression is destructive to life and harmony on earth.
Womanism Liberal: Racism and sexism are bound and cannot be properly addressed by other feminist movements. [BWOA, NBFO]
Multiracial feminism Liberal: Focus is on multiple categories influencing identity — race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, economic class.
Power feminism Liberal: Women need not be “victims,” but rather should take responsibility and use political and economic power.
Separatism Cultural: Reform is unlikely in a male-oriented society that fails to value women. Values all-female communities.
Revalorism Cultural: Feminine roles and abilities must be reclaimed and revalued. Special needs require unique legal rights.
Third Wave (present day): Expands second wave: more inclusive, practical, action-oriented, and relationally focused. Emphasis on media use and social justice.
Antifeminist/Backlash Movements: Specific backlash movements created to fight against the first, second and third waves of profeminist movements. [NAOWS, TW]
II. Men’s Movements:
Profeminist Men’s Movements: Liberal: Men and women alike should enjoy equal rights, opportunity, and status. [NOMAS, WRC, MVP]
Father’s rights groups Either L or C: Fathers deserve the same consideration as mothers in their role as parents. (Some groups are liberal and espouse an equal standard for males and females as parents.)
Masculinist Men’s Movements: Cultural: Men have different rights, responsibilities, and roles than women.
Father’s rights groups Either L or C: Fathers deserve the same consideration as mothers in their role as parents. (Often with a masculinist or “backlash” attitude and rhetoric.)
Free men Cultural: Men need to celebrate traditional roles and values associated with “real men.” [NOM]
Mythopoetic men Cultural: Men need to rediscover the deep, mythic nature of masculine thought and feeling.
Promise Keepers Cultural: Men must take responsibility for rebuilding strong Christian families and communities.
Million Man March Cultural: Black men must devote themselves to spiritual transformation and political action.
*What about LGBTQ movements? Not specifically women’s or men’s rights, but certainly gender rights issues. What groups? What rhetoric?