Works Cited Draft: Assignment directions
Your Works Cited draft is due (date TBD). This assignment is worth 2 points. You will need to list the main article you analyzed in your paper, and any sources from your research paper. Remember, all sources that you used for your paper must be cited (they must have an in-text citation, and they must be listed on your Works Cited page), and all sources listed on your Works Cited page must be cited somewhere in your paper. The Works Cited page for the Final Paper will be the last page of your research paper.
You must follow MLA format:
that is, if you have a book, follow the MLA format for the works cited entry for a book; if you have an article from a website, follow the MLA format for ‘short work from a website’
1) Please see pp. 601-602 “General Guidelines for the Works Cited List” in the Bedford Handbook (9th edition) for the general format of the Works Cited page itself.
2) see section 56b for a directory of Works Cited models; this is based on the type of source you have, and is divided into: Listing Authors, rules for Books, rules for articles from Periodicals (newspapers, magazines, journals), rules for Online Sources (websites, databases), rules for Audio/Visual Sources (including podcasts, dvds), rules for Other Sources. You need to identify the type of source you used, then apply the corresponding formatting rule for that type of source.
Basic rules for the Works Cited page are: (see BH, section 56b)
a) alphabetize the list of sources by last name of author
or editor (if no author),
or if no author or editor, by first word of title (except A, An, The)
b) don’t indent first line of each entry, but you must indent any additional lines by half an inch = ‘hanging indent’
2)Also see the sample Works Cited page on p. 661 (at the end of the “Sample MLA research paper”, section 57b of The Bedford Handbook (10th ed.).
I recommend using EasyBib, at www.easybib.com , to create your Works Cited page. If you give EasyBib the info for each source, it will format the Works Cited page and alphabetize the list of works for you. Just make sure you keep the ‘hanging indent’ format for the WC page.
9. Introduction section directions
Your introduction should give a general overview of the issue being debated in your paper, and should include “background information” on the issue (anything that is important for your reader to understand about the issue). For example, what is controversial about the issue discussed in the main article? What are some important aspects to consider about this issue? You must describe at least 2 different positions on the issue (ex: pro and con). You may want to describe some of the history of the debate about this topic. You should also describe why this issue should matter to your readers. To find background information on the issue you will address in your paper, you may want to try the ‘topic overview’ sections in the MDC Library databases (such as Opposing Viewpoints in Context).
Here is a sample from a student paper. The controversial issue being discussed is whether Plan B (a type of emergency contraception) should be available over the counter.
The United States’ teen birth rate is higher than that of any other developed country, including the birth rates of Canada, Germany and France. The United States also leads all other developed countries in the rates of many STIs (sexually transmitted infections). Presently it is being debated whether emergency contraceptives should be available over the counter (without a prescription) to younger adolescents under the age of eighteen. Supporters state that emergency contraceptives should be easily available to anyone sexually active regardless of age, but those that are against it state that young adolescents lack the maturity and ability to make proper decisions and should not have easy access to emergency contraception. Given the staggering evidence that teenagers in the USA are having unprotected sex, this is a very relevant topic to us all. The common factor in this situation is that teens are having unprotected sex which is leading to unwanted pregnancies and a rise in STIs. Making emergency contraception, or as it is commonly called “Plan B,” available over the counter to teens may reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies and abortions but it will have no effect on the rise of STI’s.
10. Ethos, Pathos, Logos example directions :
Please note — this assignment will be the first paragraph in the Analysis section for the Final Research Paper (please refer to the Research Paper Outline).
Discuss at least one example of where the author of your main article uses ethos (the author’s credibility or reputation), pathos (emotion), or logos (logic, reasoning, or hard evidence like statistics, facts, or data). This can be one or two sentences per example. You just need to demonstrate that you can recognize where your author used one of these approaches (ethos, pathos, or logos).
Eleanor Smith uses a logos approach when she gives statistics to back up her second point about the media influencing women’s body image (324).
Here are two examples adapted from previous students’ papers:
Solomon Katz uses a logos approach when it comes to his point on “global warming’s influence on agricultural productivity” (795). He gives information about “carbon monoxide released into the atmosphere by the consumption of fossil fuels” (Katz 795), which is a fact to support his argument.
In the essay “Mother Tongue,” the author uses pathos to get the reader’s attention. For example, in the article Tan stated, “I am someone who has always loved language” and “I am fascinated by language in daily life” (763). Those two sentences at the beginning of the article make a person want to read further because Tan used emotion by expressing her enthusiasm for language.
11. Effectiveness discussion directions:
Please refer to the Research Paper Outline, Analysis section. For paragraph 6, discuss the effectiveness of the argument in your main article. Answer the following — Was the argument in the Main Article effective ? Is the argument missing anything critical (like evidence/support) that would help make it stronger? Are there any flaws in the logic of the Main Article’s argument? Do you have suggestions to improve this argument? Below are two examples from previous students’ papers.
ex 1: (discussing an article by Solomon Katz)
When it comes to Katz’s information about climate change being an influence on agricultural productivity, his argument is effective to an extent: he does explain what causes climate change, such as the burning of fossil fuels, and he mentions that it adversely affects agriculture productivity, but he could have mentioned more to give a better example of how these changes occur, in a way similar to Walthall’s explanations. Katz’s could have mentioned the role of human beings in climate change, such as through “deforestation, overgrazing of livestock, fires, and urban development” (Walthall). Adding statistics about how climate change has affected agriculture, such as the amount of crops that are being lost due to drought, would also give greater support to his point.
ex. 2: (discussing “Mother Tongue” by Amy Tan)
The author’s arguments are effective because anyone who speaks English as their second language, or even their first language, but who has immigrants parents, would agree with Tan on her view in “Mother Tongue”. The author used many examples to prove her point of view in the article. She did not leave out any important information; basically, I think she incorporated all she wanted to say in her article. For example, I think she succeeded because she gave the message that she wanted to give, which was how people looked at those who do not speak English perfectly. However, I think Tan could have made her argument a little stronger. Maybe she could have interviewed a couple of other people who were in the same situation as her because that would have given her more credibility and proved that what she was experiencing was not only her own experience, but other people’s experience as well. Overall, a lot of people can relate to what Tan talked about in her article and she explained what she had to say thoroughly.